Urban issues and challenges

  • Created by: Anoupinto
  • Created on: 03-12-18 19:44
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  • urban issues and challenges
    • urbanisation
      • urbanisation-the "increasing proportion of people living in urban areas such as towns and cities"
        • HICs- high income countries
          • urbanisation happened earlier (eg in industrial revolution) so most people now already live in urban areas
          • very slow rates of urban growth
            • more people are moving to live in rural areas for better quality of life
              • this can happen because of good transport and communication
        • LICs- low income countries
          • highest global rates of urbanisation in LICs
            • not many of the population live currently live in urban areas
        • NEEs- newly emerging economy
          • percentage of population varies
            • some such as Thailand and Nigeria are experiencing rapid urban growth
        • more than 50% of the worlds population live in urban areas
      • caused by rural-urban migration and natural increase
        • rural-urban migration- movement of people from countryside to cities, affected by push and pull factors
          • push factors-push people away from areas (countryside)
            • Natural disasters can damage property that people cant afford too repair
            • mechanisation- machines such as agricultural ones don't need people to work them anymore which means fewer jobs
            • conflict or war can push people to leave
            • desertification can make land infertile so people cant support themselves
          • pull factors- pull people to an area
            • more and better paid jobs in urban areas
              • mainly young people who then have children which increases population
            • access to better health care and education
              • means people will live longer in the areas which increase population
            • to join friends or family
            • people think they will have a better quality of life
        • natural increase- population growth when birth rate is higher than death rate
      • high rates of urbanisation leads to growth of mega cities
        • megacity- city where 10 million people live
          • 34 megacities in the world and 2/3 are in LICs and NICs
    • Urban growth creates oppurtunities and challenges for LICs
      • Mumbai
        • West India, in Maharashtra state, East coast of Arabian sea
          • Importance
            • internationally
              • top 10 centers of commerce
              • the two ports handle more than a third of India's foreign trade
              • 42 universities with 550,000 students from around the world
              • centre of Bollywood film industry
              • home to many TNC (transnational corporations) including Disney and GSK
              • 29th largest city by GDP
            • nationally
              • Major shipping route, going to New York, Italy and South Africa, also has a major airport
              • Makes 6% of India's GDP
              • 40% of Indias foreign trade
              • US$10 billion collected in Mumbai
              • 25% of India's industrial production
              • highest number of millionaires in India
                • per capita income higher than Indian average
                  • 33% Indias income tax comes from Mumbai
              • handles 60% of Indias sea trade
              • major transport hub
            • regionally
              • More jobs than in rural parts of Maharashtra state and higher paying
              • more local health care
              • more schools and universities
                • higher than average literacy rate for state
        • Urban growth
          • causes
            • Mumbai's urban population is estimated to be over 22 million and By 2030, Mumbai will have an estimated population of 28 million.
            • migration
              • job oppurtunities
                • Increased use of machinery has forced people out of farming; Maharashtra is very rural
                • small scale famers are vulnerable to bad harvest as they are dependant on crops
                • job opportunities in service industries and the manufacturing industries which pay higher wages
              • more schools, health care facilities and entertainment
              • rural-urban migration
            • natural increase
              • very high birth rate
                • more children as lots die and they are needed to earn money for family
          • oppurtunities
            • social
              • health
                • poor have access to basic medical services that they either would not have in the rural areas or would have to travel very long distances for
                • easier access to a wider range of medical services including doctors, hospitals and nurses.
              • education
                • want their children to have a much better chance in life than themselves.
                • better literacy rate
              • water supply
                • access to clean water that does not transmit parasites or cause cholera
                • no time consuming labour intensive walk to the local well
              • energy
                • people live with all of the benefits of energy and electricity.
            • economic
              • huge range of job opportunities from the working for a major financial institution, to the most basic such as rag pickers
              • formal economy- pay tax, worker protection, holiday rights and a regular wage
              • 85% of people have a job  dharavi  and work locally, and some have become millionaires.
              • informal economy-untaxed, no minimum wage, no holiday rights and often work in dangerous conditions
                • offer poor, uneducated people a chance to earn money and improve their quality of life
          • challenges
            • Dharavi
              • economic
                • earn around a £1 a day
                • work under the hot sun in awful conditions
              • social
                • water
                  • few water pipes that are on for 2 hours a day
                  • old pipes that have cracks
                    • next to open sewage so some leaks into pipes
                      • water-borne diseases
                • sanitation
                  • 500 people share one toilet
                    • spreads disease
                • health
                  • doctors deal with 4,000 cases a day of diphtheria and typhoid.
                  • low life expectancy
                    • poor conditions, bad quality water and dangerous jobs
              • environmental
                • waste disposal
                  • 7,500 metric tonnes of waste every day produced
                  • Everything is recycled. 80% of plastic waste gets recycled in Dharavi.
                • pollution
                  • water pollution
                    • 77% of households suffer from poor water quality
                  • air pollution
                    • very dirty air  has dangerous levels of Nitrous Oxides and small dust particles
                • traffic congestion
                  • more than 22 million vehicles registered in Mumbai
                    • noise and air pollution
      • urban planning in Dharavi
        • demolishing slum and building high rise tower blocks
          • positives
            • don't have to live in waste
              • organised waste management services
            • they have addresses and people can be registered
              • tax can be collected
                • extra services can be delivered
            • clean water piped to every home
              • no more queues
          • negatives
            • people lose jobs sorting through it
              • organised waste management services
            • very small apartments 21m squared
              • families will be split up
              • more cramped than slum
            • little communal space
              • loses sense of community which is key feature of slum
            • will have to commute to work
          • Slum Rehabilitation Authority
    • London
      • South East England on River Thames
      • importance
        • London is part of Europe’s economic core, the area producing the majority of the GDP or wealth of Europe
        • also has Global reach, through its major airports Heathrow and Gatwick, and its economic pull via the City of London and the Stock Exchange.
        • London is one of the most visited cities in the world
          • highest tourist spend in the world with $21.1billion in 2011
        • 8.3 million people
          • London’s population is 12.5% of the UK’s on just 0.6% of the land
      • growth
      • urban change
        • oppurtunities
          • social
          • environmental
          • economic
        • challenges
          • social
          • environmental
          • economic
          • impact of urban sprawl
      • UK
        • Unevenly distributed population
        • one of the most urbanised countries in the world
          • 82%
        • The further North you go, the sparcer the population density is
    • sustainability
      • Water and energy conservation
      • waste recycling
      • creating green space

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