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  • Created on: 30-05-16 13:46
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  • Upringing
    • The role of the family- Juby and Farrington
      • Biggest influence on criminality is family. If your family are criminals, it's likely that you will also be a criminal
      • Test the hypothesis that problem families produce problem children
      • 411 boys aged 8-9 from 6 East London state schools. They were white and from working class families
      • Longitudinal study- used self reports and criminal data records
      • - 48%... with convicted fathers (19% without)           - 54%... with convicted mothers (23% without)             - Offences peak at age 17
      • Disrupted families:           - delinquency rate higher with 75 boys who permanently lived in a disrupted home on their 15th birthday       - parental disharmony causes more disruptions than parental death
      • Children from broken but harmonious homes are less likely to be delinquents than those brought up in an intact but conflict ridden home
      • Childhood risk factors at age 8-9 for later offending are: - low school attainment - poverty - poor parenting
    • Poverty and Disadvantaged neighbourhoods- Wikstrom
      • Investigate why young people offend
      • Almost 2,000 14-15 year olds from 13 state schools in Peterborough (from 1957)
      • Cross sectional study where data was collected from official records and students were interviewed
      • - 45% males and 31% females had committed at least 1 crime during 2000 - high frequency offenders commit a wide range of crimes - offenders are more likely to abuse alcohol or drugs than non-offenders
      • Wikstrom and Tafel suggested 3 groups of adolescent offenders: - Propensity induced- natural tendency to behave a certain way - Lifestyle dependent- offend when they have a high risk lifestyle - Situationally limited- occasionally offend when they are exposed to high levels of situational risk
    • Learning from others- Bandura & Sutherland
      • Bandura
        • Behaviourism argues that all learning is environmentally driven
        • SLT says that we learn not only by direct reinforcement but by imitation of others
        • The 4 stages of SLT:   Attention, Retention, Motivation, Reproduction
      • Sutherland
        • General need (i.e. poverty) is not sufficient explanation for crime
        • The learning of criminal behaviour takes place in context of small groups with those who the young person has a close relationship with
        • Young people also learn criminals beliefs and attitudes as 'rewarded' or 'acceptable'
        • 8 principles: - Criminal behaviour is learned, not inherited - Criminal behaviour is learned through interaction with other people in a process of communication - Learning of criminal behaviour occurs within intimate personal groups - Learning of criminal behaviour involves all mechanisms that are involved in any other learning


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