Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Europe 11000-5000BC

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  • Created on: 05-02-16 11:32
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  • Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Europe 11000-5000BC
    • Red 'Lady' of Paviland
      • Discovered 1823
      • Adult male corpse-25-30 years old. 1.74 m high
      • 26,000 BP through AMS
      • Corpse dyed with red ochre-funerary practice
      • Bone analysis (collagen) shows diet consisted of 15-20% fish.
        • Represent nomadic nature due to distance from sea. Other alternative could be presence of river.
        • Could indicate that body taken to coastal region for burial-specific ritual?
          • Represent nomadic nature due to distance from sea. Other alternative could be presence of river.
      • Wales
      • Grave goods
        • Perforated shells-decoration?
          • Identical to shells found at site in South Africa (Blombos)-75,000 years old.
        • Mammoth skull+spatulae
        • Paviland caves altogether had 4000 worked flints, necklace bones, mammoth-ivory bracelets and stone needles.
      • Cave reached by ladders-idea of another world or crossing a boundary? (Liminal)
      • Shamanism?
      • Upper Palaeolithic.
      • Headless
        • ritual?
    • Burials found across Europe from time period are overwhelmingly male-contrast with venus figure prevalence.
    • Climate and fauna of upper Palaeolithic
      • Holocene=post-glacial world.
      • Retreating ice-new areas exposed, others flooded.
      • Mega fauna (mammoth) die out, growth of forest fauna.
      • Seafood becomes more prevalent.
        • Mesolithic diet switches to include more fish-allowed brain to develop.
      • Warmer weather=more plant growth.
        • Mesolithic diet switches to include more fish-allowed brain to develop.
    • Gough's cave
      • Minimum of 3 adults and 2 children-MNI-count skulls or other bones which only occur singularly in a skeleton.
      • Signs of dismemberment on bones-cut marks.
        • Also signs of burning-roasted and eaten?
        • Skinned
          • Also signs of burning-roasted and eaten?
      • Horse sinews worked to produce sewing threads to make clothes/shoes.
        • Cannibalism and 'cottage industry'?
      • Cheddar man one of adults. Most complete skeleton in UK. 7150BC
      • Upper Palaeolithic.
      • Ceremonial staff of reindeer antler, fox teeth and perforated shells.
    • Mesolithic
      • Olleneonstrovski Mogilnik (Russia)
        • 170 bodies with social stratification.
        • Zoomorphic figures and maceheads-votive offerings?
      • Lapenski Vir
        • Foundation burials-6,500BC
          • Latest AMS suggests 9,500-6000BC.
        • Latest AMS suggests 9,500-6000BC.
        • One large settlement with 10 satellite villages
        • Located on banks of Danube-Serbia
        • Artifacts include tools of stone and bone, house remains and sacral objects including unique stone sculptures.
        • Bare porphyritic cliff (679 m high) which rises on the opposite side of the Danube from  Lepenski Vir
        • Evidence of temporary settlements-semi nomadic nature.
        • Dead buried outside village in cemetery-exception of a few elders who are buried behind fireplaces-ritual?
        • Piscine sculptures
          • First appearance of monumental sculptures in Europe
          • Humanoid figures with strong brow arches, elongated noses and fish-like mouth. Some other features sometimes present, but always with fish like features.
            • River gods?
          • Other sculptures include geometric shapes.
        • Some altars found.
        • Fish diet.

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