Different reasons criminals turn to crime

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  • Turning to crime
    • Upbringing
      • Farrington et al
        • longitudinal survey, using interviews and searching criminal records
        • 411 boys mainly white and working class from 397 different families including 14 pairs of brothers and 5 pairs of twins
        • Only 394 males were alive at 48 out of the 411
        • Offending peaked at 17 followed by 18, those who started their criminal careers at 10-13 91% nearly all went on to commit another crime with 91% committing 9 crimes on average
        • A small group offenders were called chronic offenders for making up almost half the recorded crimes and they often had a convicted parent, delinquent sibling, young mother, large family etc.
      • Sutherland's theory of differential association
        • Argues criminal behavior is learnt through interactions, in small groups, looks at some laws as pointless, and a person becomes a criminal when they associate with more criminals than non criminals
        • Assumes 1.) deviance occurs when situations occur where it is seemed as appropriate to break laws and 2.) the situations deemed as appropriate are acquired through experience
        • Only applies to group crimes and does not explain criminals who act alone
      • Wilkstrom
        • Nearly 2000 year 10 students from Peterborough
        • Interview and data collection
        • High frequency offenders committed a wide range of crimes, 1/8 offenders were caught for their last crime and offenders were drunk and did drugs more often than other youths
    • Cognitive
      • Yolcheson and Samenow
        • 255 male participants from various ethnicities and classes
        • Interviews conducted over several years
        • Out of 255 participants only 30 completed it with only 9 changing as a result
        • Yolcheson and Samenow stated they knew some participants would have lied as they thought it would improve their situation
        • Selected findings included being restless, having anger as a way of life, want excitement at any cost, have no obligation to anyone/anything
      • Gudjohnsson
        • Used the 42 item blame attribution inventory to measure attribution in 3 ways: internal/external, guilt and mental element
        • Group 1: 20 offenders who committed violent crimes like GBH mean age 29
        • Group 2: 40 sex offenders e.g. rapists
        • Group 3: 20 criminals who committed property offences like theft, mean age 29
        • Highest remorse was shown by sex offenders followed by violent crimes
      • Kholberg
        • In 1963, 58 working and middle class boys from Chicago participated
          • Kholberg also carried out the experiment in different countries like Mexico and Turkey
        • Each boy had a two hour interview with dilemmas e.g. the Heinz dilemma
        • Younger boys performed at stages 1 and 2 with older boys performing at 3 and 4
    • Biological
      • Raine
        • Review article to see the causes of antisocial and aggressive behavior in children
        • A low resting heart is a good indicator for individuals who will look for excitement to raise their arousal to create a fearless temperament
        • The pre frontal lobes are still forming connections into adolescent years
          • Low pre frontal lobe activity is linked to aggression and antisocial behavior explaining why offending peaks in these years
        • Drinking  and smoking during pregnancy all adds to the risk
      • Brunner
        • Case study on 5 males in a family affected by violence
        • For 24 hours urine samples were examined
        • A point mutation was found in the gene responsible for the production of MAOA
          • MAOA is linked to the production of serotonin which is a neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of anger
      • Daly and Wilson
        • A correlational survey using data from police records and police census
        • Examined local communities in Chicago with lower than average life expectancy
        • Life expectancy rates were the best indicator for homicide rates followed by school truency
        • One explanation for this was that men had discounted their future and lived for short term rewards
          • Parents not investing into their child's education can be explained by them also living short term
        • With women it was found in areas of low life expectancy they had children earlier 22.6 compared with areas of higher life expectancy at 27.3
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