Farrington et al.,

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  • Farrington et al., The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (2006)
    • Document offending behaviour from childhood to adulthood in families and look at the influence of life events.
    • 411 boys aged 8 and 9 who were born in 1953/1954. At age 48, 394 were still alive and 93% were interviewed.
    • At aged 48 of the 404 searched 161 had convictions.
      • These 'chronic offenders' all shared similar childhoods e.g. a convicted parent
        • 91% of those who started at aged 10-13 committed 9 crimes on average compared to the average of 6 of those who started at 14-16. 77% of crimes in the study were committed by these groups
          • 93% of admitted to committing one type of offence at some point in their lives
            • 7% of men in the study accounted for about half of all officially recorded offences in the study and their conviction careers lasted between 14-35. These were described as 'chronic offenders'
              • Numbers of offences and offenders peaked at age 17. There were 11 offenders and 17 offences per 100 males.
                • 91% of those who started at aged 10-13 committed 9 crimes on average compared to the average of 6 of those who started at 14-16. 77% of crimes in the study were committed by these groups
                  • 93% of admitted to committing one type of offence at some point in their lives
                    • 7% of men in the study accounted for about half of all officially recorded offences in the study and their conviction careers lasted between 14-35. These were described as 'chronic offenders'
                      • Numbers of offences and offenders peaked at age 17. There were 11 offenders and 17 offences per 100 males.
                        • The proportion of men leading successful lives went from 78% at 32 to 88% at 48
                • The proportion of men leading successful lives went from 78% at 32 to 88% at 48
    • Offenders tend to be deviant in many aspects of their lives. Early-prevention that reduces offending could have wide ranging benefits
    • Longditudinal study allows for development of behaviour over time
      • Main risk factors can illustrate understanding of the nurture debate
        • Psychodynamic - early experience may effect later life
          • Behaviourist - observation may result in imitation
            • Main risk factors can illustrate understanding of the nurture debate
              • Psychodynamic - early experience may effect later life
                • Behaviourist - observation may result in imitation
    • These 'chronic offenders' all shared similar childhoods e.g. a convicted parent

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