effects of video games

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  • The effects of Video games
    • video gaming is the worlds largest entertainment medium
    • problems
      • Vicarious reinforcement
        • in action games such as world of war craft
          • character gains glory from killing
            • positively reinforces violence
              • however for behaviour to be learnt it needs to be positively reinforced in the real world
              • Anderson et al
                • meta-analysis
                • short term effect
                  • temporary increases of aggression in all participants
                    • biased stimulus
                      • not all video games display violence
                        • eg animal crossing
            • increase addiction and criminal activities
              • high application to everyday life
      • Funatsuka
        • increased physiological arousal
        • Nintendo had to be reformatted due to causing an epileptic fit in more than 700 Japanese viewers
        • music also increased arousal
      • desensitisation to violence
        • Bartholemew found reduced brain response in those who played video games frequently
          • more accepting to  real life violence
            • could lead to people accepting a domestic abuses relationship
      • Gruuser et al
        • surveys 7000 people
          • large sample
          • social desirability
        • using the WHO criteria 12% were addicted
          • would effect their development
            • form poorer relationships because they're removing themselves from social situations
              • cause and effect cant be established
                • might of turned to video games because they were struggling to make friends
              • however they make more virtual friends
          • personalities taken into consideration
    • benefits
      • catharsis
      • gold et al
        • helps children who find it hard to express themselves
          • eg children with hearing difficulties
      • Karni et al
        • improve a range of cognitive skills eg attention skills
          • change in neurochemicals
            • long term change
      • promote physical activity
        • vicarious reinforcement
          • want to be fit and healthy like the characters
        • people with hearing difficulties feel daunted by physical exercise due to a reduced awareness of their surrounding environment
          • gain confidence fro learning to play tennis
            • this games doesn't need audio feedback
        • actual exercise burns four times as much calories
          • so they need to encourage sport
      • encourage communication
        • eg facebook
          • constantly chatting with friends
            • can make friends from all over the world
              • increase cultural exchange
            • increase risk of cyber bulling and paedophiles
    • ida
      • lehart found 99% of boys played video games
        • research mainly involves boys
          • ignoring 50% of the population
      • ethical issues
        • experiments may cause harm to the childs development
          • only naturalistic experiments should be used
        • full consent from parent or guardian
      • extraneous variables
        • eg biological factors should be taken into consideration

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