Unit B6 cont. part 2

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  • Unit B6 cont. part 2
    • biological washing powder
    • enzymes and sweaters
      • sucrose can be by the use off an enzyme called surcease
      • the product produced when sucrose is broken down is much sweater allowing food industry's to use much less in food
      • invertease converts sucrose  into
        • fructose
      • lactase and immobilised enzymes
        • you can immobilise enzymes by
          • mixing the enzymes with alginate
            • putting the mixture into calcium chloride solution
          • some people are lactose intolerant because the Bactria in their gut ferment the lactose
            • lactase and immobilised enzymes
              • you can immobilise enzymes by
                • mixing the enzymes with alginate
                  • putting the mixture into calcium chloride solution
                • some people are lactose intolerant because the Bactria in their gut ferment the lactose
                  • using this metod to change lactase in milk to glucose and glucases
                    • this can be absorbed by the enzymes without a problem
            • using this metod to change lactase in milk to glucose and glucases
              • this can be absorbed by the enzymes without a problem
    • microscopic life in water
      • advantages of living in water
        • no risk of dehydration or water shortage
        • helps provide weight support
        • waste is easily disposed of in water
      • disadvantages of living in water
        • the water content f the body can very and needs to be controlled
        • water is denser than air and so can resit movements
      • freshwatercan be dangerous for some organisms because they can take up to much water through osmosis whereas the opposite will happen in salt water
      • amoeba have a contractile vacuole this can store excess water  this vacuole can then fuse with the cell membrane and empty the water to the outside
      • the numbers of phytoplankton and zooplankton vary thought the year due to
        • the season their will be less light in winter so many phytoplankton will die
        • the temperature  will be lower in the winter so some will die
        • the minerals in the water start to run out by the end
      • marine food webs provide different amounts of information on what eats what
        • such as most reply on green plants
        • others deeper in the ocean rely on dead material
        • some even eat photosynthesising bacteria
      • water pollution
        • rember what euptopication is
        • some species are more sensitive to pollution and so can be used as biological indicators
        • some chemicals such as PBC and DDT can kill animals at the top of marine food chains this is because they
          • are toxic
          • don't break down and become more contracted at the top of the food chain
          • affect animals with a long life span for ensample whales
    • gene technology
      • the main stages of genetic engineering
        • identify and remove diserd gene form on orgnisum
          • use restriction enzymes to cut open the Dna in another organism
            • add new gene
              • make sure gene works
                • theses transgenic organisms can often be cloned to produce identical copies
            • restriction enzymes leave unpaired bases  called sticky ends these can then be used by Ligase enzymes to stick the new gene in
        • this proses  works because genetic codes are universal across all species
        • this can be done with bacteria to make insulin this takes the human insulin gene foloows the se steps by inserting the insulin into the bacteria Dna the bacteria ill then produce insulin
          • the bacteria are then cloned and massive amounts o insulin are made
          • the loops of bacteria DNA used in this prosseare called plasmids they can be used as vectors of genes
          • to find out if it worked scientists
            • add a gene that also makes them restint to anti biotic
              • the bacteria are flooded by the antibiotic wich is in the agar plate
      • DNA fingerprinting
        • A DNA fingerprint can be used to asses who committed a crime by compeering DNA at crime scene with the suspects they can find the guilty  party however some people don't like it as it can be used to see if you could get a terminal deases  and insures could withhold life insurance
        • how to make a DNA finger print
          • extract DNA from a sample
            • cut up or fragment using restriction enzymes separate fragments using electrophoresis
              • use a radioactive probe to make these visible
  • water pollution
    • rember what euptopication is
    • some species are more sensitive to pollution and so can be used as biological indicators
    • some chemicals such as PBC and DDT can kill animals at the top of marine food chains this is because they
      • are toxic
      • don't break down and become more contracted at the top of the food chain
      • affect animals with a long life span for ensample whales

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