AS Biology - Unit 1 - Disease and Immunity (2)

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  • Unit 1 - Disease and Immunity
    • Phagocytes Engulf Pathogens
      • 1) The pagocyte recognises the antigen of a pathogen
        • 2) The cytoplasm of the phagocyte moves around the pathogen, engulfing it
          • 3) The pathogen is contained in a phagocytic vacuole in the cytoplasm of the phagocyte
    • Phagocytes activate T-Cells
      • Killer T-Cells: they get rid of the pathogenic cells by chemicals and toxins called lymphokines
      • Helper T-Cells: stimulate B-Cells antibody production
      • Suppressor T-Cells: switch the immune system off once the pathogen is gone
      • Memory T-Cells: stop reinfection by remaining after the pathogen dies, provide faster response if reinfected
    • T-Cells activate B-Cells
      • Plasma B-Cells: produce antibodies, secreting 2 thousand per second, these antibodies destroy the pathogens and neutralize any toxins, however they only last a few days.
      • Memory B-Cells: remember the pathogens antigen to provide a faster response if the immune system is reinfected, live for long periods of time, divide rapidly if they later meet the antigen, produce a stronger and more rapid response
    • Cellular Response:T-Cells
    • Humoral Response: B-Cells
  • 1) The pagocyte recognises the antigen of a pathogen
    • 2) The cytoplasm of the phagocyte moves around the pathogen, engulfing it
      • 3) The pathogen is contained in a phagocytic vacuole in the cytoplasm of the phagocyte
  • 4) A lysosome fuses with the phagocytic vacuole and uses its enzymes to break down the pathogen
    • 5) The phagocyte then presents the pathogens antigens on its surface to activate other immune cells (this only occurs if the phagocyte is a macrophage)

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