politcs

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  • UNIT 1
    • POLITICAL PARTIES
      • CONSERVATISM
        • LIBERALISM
          • SOCIALISM
            • A state of mind and a poltical movement that places such values as equality of opportunity, social justice and collectivism high on its scale of values. It is either opposed to free-market capitalism or proposes measures to moderate the undesirable effects of capitalism.
              • THIRD WAY
              • OLD LABOUR
          • A state of political mind or a political movement that places freedom, rights and tolerance high on its scale of values.
            • CON-LIB AGREEMENTS:
              • RADICAL CUTS TO PUBLIC EXPENDITURE AND WELFARE
              • INCOME TAX TO BE REDUCED IN STAGES FOR THOSE WITH LOWER INCOME
              • BANKING SECTOR REFORM
              • BENEFITS REFORM AND DENY BENEFITS TO THOSE NOT WILLING TO WORK
              • FIXED-TERM PARLIAMENTS
        • A state of mind a political movement that is naturally adverse to excessive change and reform. It is sceptical about strongly held political views, prefers the known to the unknown and generally supports the retention of traditional institutions and values.
          • THATCHERISM
          • TRADITIONAL
          • ECONOMIC
          • ONE-NATION
          • CAMERONIAN CONSERVATISM
            • ENVIRONMENTALISM REDUCE EMISSIONS BY 2050
            • CARRY ON LABOUR ACADEMIES (2007)
            • OPPOSITION TO THE ECHR (1998)
            • SOFTER ON CRIME (2011 LOOTING)
            • BETTER PUBLIC SEVRICES BEFORE LOWERING TAXES
            • 'BIG SOCIETY'
          • A state of political mind or a political movement that places freedom, rights and tolerance high on its scale of values.
            • CON-LIB AGREEMENTS:
              • RADICAL CUTS TO PUBLIC EXPENDITURE AND WELFARE
              • INCOME TAX TO BE REDUCED IN STAGES FOR THOSE WITH LOWER INCOME
              • BANKING SECTOR REFORM
              • BENEFITS REFORM AND DENY BENEFITS TO THOSE NOT WILLING TO WORK
              • FIXED-TERM PARLIAMENTS
          • AGREEMENTS TO DIFFER (COALITION)
            • Untitled
    • DEMOCRACY AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
      • DIRECT VS. REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY
        • FOR DIRECT DEMOCRACY: Purest form of democracy. E.g. referendum.
        • FOR DIRECT DEMOCRACY: Prevents representatives from making decisions purely based on their own interests.
        • FOR DIRECT DEMOCRACY: People are becoming more educated and more aware of political matters.
          • FOR DIRECT DEMOCRACY: Where there is disillusionment with representative institutions, people prefer to make the decisions themselves.
            • FOR DIRECT DEMOCRACY: The people more authority when the make decisions themselves.
        • FOR REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY: Elected representatives use superior knowledge and judgement when making decisions. This avoids hasty and over emotional decisions by the people.
          • FOR REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY: Representatives mediate between conflicting interests and different sections of society. Minorities are left vulnerable as with direct democracy, the will of the majority always prevails.
            • FOR REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY: Conflicting interests do require complex solutions and questions used in referenda lead to over-simplified answers.
              • FOR REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY: Demands by the people are often incoherent and illogical. Representative democracy tries to make better sense of this and convert them into political programmes.
      • REFERENDA
        • FOR: Most direct form of democracy.
          • FOR: People more likely to conform to decisions they have decided themselves and represent true consent to the government.
            • FOR: Prevent the government from making unpopular decisions.
              • FOR: Resolves problems between parties and government.
                • FOR: They entrench constitutional change.
          • AGAINST: Could undermine representative institutions.
            • AGAINST: Some issues possibly could be too complex for the people to understand.
              • AGAINST: May produce an emotional response opposed to a rational response.
                • AGAINST: Rich groups and tabloid press could influence the result unjustifiably.
                  • AGAINST: Might be used as general verdict on the government.
                    • AGAINST: Minorities do suffer as due to 'tyranny of the majority.'
      • DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A REFERENDUM AND AN ELECTION
        • Single-issue (REFERENDUM)
        • Party (ELECTION)
        • Plebiscite (Ballot Box - REFERENDUM)
        • First Past the Post (FPTP - ELECTION)
        • ENTRENCHES CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGE (REFERENDUM)
      • REFERENDA EXAMPLES
        • 1975 (ECC MEMBERSHIP) YES: 67.2 NO: 32.8 TURNOUT: 64.5
          • 2002-2004 VARIOUS (31) LOCALITIES ELECTED MAYORS YES: 11 VOTES NO: 20 VOTES TURNOUT: VARIED BETWEEN 10% AND 64%
        • 1979 (SCOTLAND ACT) YES: 51.6 NO: 48.4 TURNOUT: 63.8
          • EDINBURGH CONGESTION CHARGE (2005) YES: 25.6 NO: 74.4 TURNOUT: 61.7
            • MANCHESTER CONGESTION CHARGE (2008) YES: 21.2 NO: 78.8 TURNOUT: 53.2
        • 1979 (WALES ACT) YES: 20.3 NO: 79.7 TURNOUT: 58.8
        • 1997 (SCOTTISH PARLIAMENT) YES: 74.3 NO: 25.7 TURNOUT: 60.4
        • SCOTTISH PARLIAMENT (TAX VARYING POWERS) YES: 63.5 NO: 36.5 TURNOUT: 60.4
        • 1997 (WELSH ASSEMBLY) YES: 63.5 NO: 36.5 TURNOUT: 60.4
          • 1998 (GLA) YES: 72.0 NO: 28.0 TURNOUT: 34.1
            • 1998 MULTI-PARTY TALKS (NIA) YES: 71.7 NO: 28.9 TURNOUT: 81.0
              • AV (MAY 2011) YES: 32.1 NO: 67.9 TURNOUT: 42.2
                • WALES (LAW MAKING POWERS 2011) YES: 63.5 NO: 36.5 TURNOUT: 35.6
                  • 11 (ENGLISH CITIES AND ELECTED MAYOR) YES: 2 - (DONCASTER AND BRISTOL) NO: 9 TURNOUT: VARIED BETWEEN: 24% AND 32%
          • 2004 (NORTH EAST ENGLAND ASSEMBLY) YES: 22.1 NO: 77.9 TURNOUT: 47.7
      • FUTURE
        • EU REFERENDUM (2017?)
        • SCOTTISH INDEPENDENCE (2014?)
    • ELECTIONS
    • PRESSURE GROUPS
  • FOR: Prevent the government from making unpopular decisions.
    • FOR: Resolves problems between parties and government.
      • FOR: They entrench constitutional change.

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