Psychology Unit 1

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  • Created by: Maddie
  • Created on: 16-04-13 18:05
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  • Unit 1
    • Research methods
      • Hypothesis
        • Directional
          • A specific 'direction' is predicted
        • Non Directional
          • No specific 'direction' is predicted
      • Variables
        • Independent variables
          • What the researcher changes
        • Dependent variables
          • This is what the researcher measures
        • Extraneous or confounding  variable
          • Something other than an independent variable the researcher cannot change
      • Sampling
        • Random
          • Everyone has an equal chance of being selected
        • Opportunity
          • Ask anyone you can find to participate
        • Volunteer sampling
          • Advertise for people to help you, eg for a small fee
      • Pilot study
        • Testing out a small version of the experiment
      • Ethical issues
        • WDPCC
          • Widthdrawal
          • Deception
          • Protection
          • Confidentiality
          • (Informed) Consent
      • Experiments
        • Field
          • Variables are manipulated in a natural area
        • Natural
          • In a real life scenario
      • Correlational analysis
        • A technique that shows whether or not variables are connected
      • Quantitative
        • 1. To do with quantity
        • 2. Focused on collecting numbers
        • 3. Very controlled
        • 4. Analysis is objective
      • Qualitative
        • 2. Focused on collecting opinions
        • 1. To do with quality
        • 3. Less controlled
        • 4. Analysis can be subjunctive
      • Measures of dispersion
        • Range
          • The distance between the highest and lowest value of data
        • Semi-interquartile rnage
          • Remove top and bottom quarter of data then calcuate the range
        • Standard deviation
          • A calculation that tells us the average 'distance from the mean' of the data points
      • Graphs
        • Bar charts
        • Histogram
        • Frequency pologon
        • Scattergraph
    • Cognitive Psychology
      • The multi-store model of memory
        • Short-term memory
          • Long term memory
            • Capacity and duration: Unlimited/potenially a lifetime
              • Duration: Bahrick et al yearbook study
            • Encoding: Semantic
          • Sensory memory
            • Iconic
            • Echoic
          • Capacity (Miller) 5-9 chunks of info
          • Encoding: Sound is ideal
          • Duration: 18 seconds with no rehearsal
      • The working memory model
        • Central Executive
          • The visuo-spatial sketchpad
            • 'Inner eye'
          • The phonological loop
            • Articulatory loop and Phonolgical store
              • Articulatory loop- Baddeley:  'inner voice' Rehearses for 2 seconds
              • Phonological store: auditory aka 'inner ear'- the perception of sounds
      • EWT
        • Loftus and Palmer- leading questions (car crash)
        • Age
          • Children
            • Suggestability
            • Language ability
            • Memory processes
          • Elderly
        • Cognitive Interview
          • Context
          • Sequence
            • Change
              • Perspective
          • Perspective
          • Report everything
        • Anxiety
          • Yerkes-Dodson law
          • Violence
            • Loftus et al: weapon focus
          • Storage disruption
      • Improving memory
        • Loci
        • Narrative chaining
        • Acronyms
        • Elaboration
        • Keyword techniques
    • Developmental Psychology
      • Attatchment
  • Qualitative
    • 2. Focused on collecting opinions
    • 1. To do with quality
    • 3. Less controlled
    • 4. Analysis can be subjunctive

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