Unit 1.2.1

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  • Unit 1.2.1
    • Somatotypes
      • Body shape or physique. Is different depending on the sport and the person.
      • Ectomorph:
        • Tall and thin, narrow in shoulders and hips, suited to endurance sports.
      • Endomorph:
        • Fat, tend to be for power sports.
      • Mesomorph:
        • Muscular, suited to sports that require strength and sudden bursts of energy.
      • How can a somatotype be changed?
        • Diet, Training Programme, Drugs, Sauna, Illness
    • Weight
      • Optimum weight:
        • Most favourable, best possible, or most advantageous weight.
        • Affecting factors:
          • Height, Sex, Bone structure, Muscle girth, Genetics.
      • Weight-related conditions:
        • Anorexia (Without Appetite)
          • An illness/eating disorder that results in extreme weight loss and a series lack of nutrition. Can lead to kidney and liver damage.
        • Obese
          • A term used to describe people who are very over fat. Increases risk of CHD, Cancer, Angina, Heart Attacks, Type 2 Diabetes.
        • Over fat
          • Having body fat in excess of normal.
        • Overweight
          • Having weight in excess of normal (it's not harmful unless accompanied by over fat)
          • Can restrict flexibility, Decrease speed of movement, Tire quicker due to more effort needed.
        • Underweight
          • Weighing less than is normal, healthy, or required.
    • Drugs
      • What is a drug?
        • Substances that affect the normal psychological and physiological functioning of the body.
        • Two categories: Performance-enhancing and recreational.
      • Performance-enhancing
        • Anabolic steroids
          • Increase muscle mass, Develops bone growth, Increases strength, Allows athlete to train for longer, Increases aggression, Quick results.
          • Side effects: Kidney problems, Mood swings, Anxiety, Aggression, High BP, Heart attacks, Strokes, Impotence, Increased masculinity, Infertility.
        • Beta Blockers
          • Lower HR and lower BP, useful in tense situations.
          • Side effects: Tiredness, Depression, Stops the heart.
        • Diuretics
          • Rapid weight loss, Weight categories, Flushes banned substances.
          • Side effects: Dehydration, Muscle cramps, Nausea, Kidney failure.
        • Narcotic Analgesics
          • Masks pain.
          • Side effects: Loss of concentration, Loss of balance, worsens injury.
        • Stimulants
          • Reduces tiredness, Increases alertness.
          • Side effects: High BP, Irregular HB, Faster HB, Insomnia.
        • HGH and EPO
          • HGH: Like anabolic steroids, Recover quicker, Increases red blood cells, Speeds up training, Reduces tiredness.
          • EPO: Increases red blood cells, Increases oxygen in the blood. Side effects: Thickens blood, Inhibits circulation.
      • Recreational
        • Caffiene, Nicotine, Ethanol
        • Smoking: Reduces oxygen transported, High BP, Poor performance, Increases alertness.
        • Ethanol: Calming effect, Slows reactions, Impairs judgement, Dehydrates, Liver damage.


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