Unit 3- Biology WJEC overview

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  • Unit 3
    • ATP
      • ATP Synthesis
        • -Electron energy pumps protons across membrane, creating a proton gradient. Protons then diffuse back through the membrane via stalked particles (containing ATP Synthetase). ATP Synthetase then catalyses the reaction of the formation of ATP.
      • Comparing Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
        • Similarities
          • Use ATP Synthetase and stalked particles
          • 2 protons provide energy to synthesise 3ATP
          • A proton gradient is created
          • ETC on inner membrane of organelle
          • Both involve redox reactions
        • Differences
          • Mitochondria- Oxidative Phosphorylation; Chloroplasts- Photophosphorylation
          • Mitochondria- energy source is chemical energy via redox, Chloroplasts- light energy
          • Mitochondria- Uses FAD and NAD, Chloroplasts- Uses NADP
          • Mitochondria- cristae (site of ETC), Chloroplast- Thylakoid membrane (site of ETC)
          • Mitochondria- water formed, Chloroplasts- water is broken down
    • Respiration
      • Stages in Respiration
        • 1.Glycolysis
        • 2.Link Reaction
        • 3.Krebs Cycle
        • 4.ETC
      • Anaerobic Respiration
        • Yeast cells
          • CO2 and ethanol would be produced, and ethanol would oxidise NADH+H+
        • Muscle cells
          • Lactic acid would be produced, acting as a final electron acceptor of NADH+H+
      • Energy Budget
        • Aerobic respiration produces 38 ATP molecules
        • Anaerobic respiration produces 2 molecules of ATP
      • Alternative Respiratory Subtrates
        • Lipids
        • Proteins
    • Photosynthesis
      • Photosynthetic pigment
        • Chlorophylls
          • Chlorophyl A- main pigmentAbsorb red/blue
        • Xanthophylls
          • Acessory pigments. Absorb blue/purple
      • Light Harvesting
      • Light Dependent Stage
        • Cyclic and Non cyclic photophosphorylation
      • Light Independent Stage
      • Limiting Factors
        • CO2 Concentration
        • Light Intensity
        • Temperature
      • Mineral Nutrition
        • Nitrogen
          • Protein Synthesis. Deficiency- chlorosis, stunted growth
        • Magnesium
          • Forms Chlorophyll. Deficiency- chlorosis
    • Human Impact
      • Planetary Boundaries
        • Climate Change
        • Biosphere Intergrity
        • Biogeochemical Flow
        • Stratospheric Intergrity
        • Ocean Acidification
        • Introduction of Novel Entities
        • Atmospheric Aerosols
        • Fresh Water Use
        • Land-system Change
      • Extinction
        • human activity amplified this
        • IUCN grading system
        • Causes: Natural selection; non-contigous populations; loss of habitat; overhunting; competition; pollition
      • Conservation
        • Gene Banks
        • Protecting Habitats
        • Restricitng trade
        • Education
        • Legislation
        • Ecotourism
        • Why Conserve?
          • Ethical reasons
          • Agriculture and horticulture
          • advantageous alleles
          • Potential medical uses
      • Agricultural exploitation
        • Monoculture
        • Loss of biodiversity
        • Overgrazing
      • Deforestation
        • Forest Management
        • Effects fo deforestation
      • Overfishing
        • Effects of overfishing
        • Methods to regulate fishing
        • Fish farming
      • Decision Making
        • Environmental Mointoring
        • Environmental Impact Assessments
    • Kidney
      • Homeostasis
        • Negative Feedback
          • Input> Recpetor> Co-ordinator> Effectors> Output
      • Functions of the Kidney
        • Excretion
        • Osmoregulation
      • Ultrafiltration
        • Occurs in Glomerulus
        • High pressure causes small molecules to be forced into the glomerular filtrate
      • Selective Reabsorption
        • Occurs in PCT
        • Water (osmosis), salts (active transport) glucose and amino acids(facilitated diffusion), urea and small proteins (diffusion)
      • Loop of Henle
        • Water is reabsorped here
        • Counter-current multiplier
          • A.L actively transport ions out into the filtrate, lowering water potential. This cause water to leave the D.L via osmosis into the vasa recta. The ions then diffuse back into the D.L
      • Osmoregulation
        • ADH mechanism
        • Aquatic Organisms: Ammonia
        • Birds: uric acid
      • Kidney Failure
        • Kidney Transplant
        • Peritoneal dialysis
        • Haemodialysis
    • Nervous System
      • Functions of the Nervous System
        • Detects stimuli in and out of the body
        • Processes and stores information
        • Initiates responses
      • Neurones
        • Sensory- carry impulses from the sense receptors/ organs into the CNS
        • Motor- carry impulses from CNS to effector organs
        • Relay- receive impulses from sensory neurones and transmit to other motor/relay neurones
      • Action Potential
        • All or nothing law
        • Factors affecting nerve impulse speed:1.Temp2.Axon diameter3.Myelination
        • 1.Resting Potential 2.De-polarisation 3.Re-polarisation 4. Hyper-polarisation
      • Synapses
        • -Transmit information between neurones-Pass impulses in one direction-Act as junctions-Filter out low level stimuli
        • Synaptic Transmission
        • Classes of synapses: Electrical Synapse and Chemical Synapse
      • Drugs
        • Sedatives- decrease the number of action potentials in post-synaptic neurones
        • Stimulants- allow more action potentials in post-synaptic neurones
        • Psychoactive Drugs- affect the firing of neurones altering brain function. However, drug dependency may develop.
      • Reflex Arc
        • Stimulus> Sensory Receptor>Sensory Neurone> CNS> Motor neurone>Response
      • Nervous System
        • CNS-Brain and Spinal Cord
        • PNS: Somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
    • Microbiology
      • Classification
        • Shape:Bacillus/rod Coccus/ sphericalSpiral/ corkscrewed
        • Gram Staining Reaction
      • Gram Staining
        • 1.Crystal Violet 2.Lugol's iodine 3.Acetone-alcohol 4.Safranin
        • Gram Positive
          • Suspectible to penicillin and lyzozyme which hold peptidoglycan molecules together
          • Stained purple
        • Gram Negative
          • Stained Red
          • Additional layer of lipopolysaccharide
          • Require antibiotics that interfere with the protein synthesis
      • Conditions
        • Nutrients: Carbon Nitrogen Vitamins Mineral Salts
        • Temperature
        • pH
        • Oxygen: Obligate Aerobe, Obligate Anaerobe, Facultative Anaerobe
      • Aseptic Techniques
        • Prevent contamination of pure cultures and apparatus by bacteria from environment
        • Prevent contamination to the environment by bacteria used in experiments
        • Disposal
          • Autoclave
      • Measuring Growth
        • Total Count: Living and dead cellsViable Count: Living cells
        • Measuring growth directly
          • Serial Dilution
          • Haemocytometer
        • Measuring growth indirectly
          • Turbidimetry
    • Population
      • Population Curve
        • (Birth + Emigration) - (Death + Immigration)
        • 1.Lag 2.Log 3.Stationary 4.Death
        • Factors
          • Abiotic and Biotic factors
          • Density dependent and independent
          • Environmental Resistance
      • Energy Flow
        • Producer> Herbivore> Consumer
        • PE= light incorporated / energy falling on plant x100
        • GPP-respiration= NPP
        • Efficiency= energy after transfer / energy before transfer x100
      • Ecological Pyramids
        • Pyramid of Biomass
        • Pyramid of Energy
        • Pyramids of Numbers
      • Succession
        • Primary Succession - introduction of species into a bare habitat that hasn't occupied a community
        • Secondary Succession- Reintroduction of species into a habitat that has previously occupied a community
        • Factors affecting
          • Competition
          • Migration
          • Facilitation
      • The Carbon Cycle
        • Human Impact
          • Deforestation
          • Climate Change
          • The Greenhouse Effect
      • Nitrogen Cycle
        • Human Impact
          • Fertilisers
          • Eutrophication
          • Drainage Ditches

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