classification of skill

  • Created by: money_k01
  • Created on: 20-10-17 17:23
View mindmap
  • Unit 2.1 Skill Aquisistion
    • classification of skill
      • pace continuum
        • self-paced skill
          • performer decided when to start/speed
            • high jump (closed skill)
        • level of control performer has over timing
        • externally paced skill
          • control of skill determined by environment
            • receiving pass in hockey(open skill)
      • continuity continuum
        • serial
          • no. discrete elements put together
            • triple jump
        • discrete
          • clear beginning/end
            • penalty kick
        • continuous
          • no deliberate beginning/end
            • cycling
      • difficulty continuum
        • simple skills
          • little info to be processed
            • sprinting
        • complexity of movement
        • complex skils
          • high perceptual load
            • lots of decisions to be made
              • timings critical
                • tennis
      • environmental continuum
        • closed skill
          • not affected by environment
            • always performed in same way
              • follow set technical model
                • self paced
                  • vault
        • opponents/team mates/weather/playing surface
        • open skill
          • affected by environment
            • adapted to suit situation
              • involve decision making
                • externally paced
                  • chest pass in netball
      • organisational continuum
        • low organisation skills
          • sub-routines easily separated
        • how closely linked the sub-routines are
        • high organisation skills
          • sub-routines closely linked
            • difficult to separated without disrupting skill
              • golf swing
      • muscular involvement continuum
        • precision of movement
        • fine skill
          • small muscle groups
            • intricate movements
              • accuracy
                • hand eye coordination
                  • darts
        • gross skill
          • large muscle groups
            • little precision
              • swimming
      • attentional wastage
        • misdirection of concentration to irrelevant cues
          • reduces effectiveness of performance
            • slow down learning proces
      • kinaesthetic sense
        • physical feeling that get from movements made
          • muscle memory
    • types of practice
      • varied practice
        • repeating skill in different situations
        • builds up schema to use in game
      • massed practice
        • continuos and repeated
        • causs fatigue
          • simulated late stages of game
      • distributed practice
        • attempts at skill divided up with interval inbetween
          • allows rest/mental rehearsal
          • good for young/lowly motivated individuals
            • best for fatiguing/dangerous skills
      • fixed practice
        • repeatedly practice whole skill
        • strengthens motor programme
      • motor programme
        • sub-routines organised into correct sequence to perform movement
        • stored in long term memory
          • schema
            • info needed to make a movement decision
      • schema
        • info needed to make a movement decision
    • methods of practice
      • part practice
        • parts of skill practised in isolation and then assembled as whole skill
          • +ve
            • -ve
              • transfer from part to whole not effective
              • time consuming
              • loss of end product
              • reduce kinaesthetic sense
            • focus on specific elements
            • reduces demand
            • serial skills
            • maintaining motivation
      • progressive part practice
        • parts of skill practised individually before being linked together and expanded
          • +ve
            • weaknesses targeted
            • understand relationship of sub-routines
            • -ve
              • slow process
      • whole practice
        • skill practised as whole from start to finish
          • +ve
            • -ve
              • unsuitable for complex skills
              • overwhelm performer
              • loose confidence
              • low attention span
            • no time wasting
            • appreciate end product
            • kinaesthetic sense
            • fast skills that cant be broken down
      • whole part whole practice
        • whole skill demonstrated + practised before be broken down then practising whole skill
          • +ve
            • -ve
              • not suitable for high organisational skills
                • dangerous if broken down
            • easier/quicker to learn
            • identifies technical weakness
    • transfer of skill
      • retroactive transfer
        • current learning of new skill affects performance of previously learnt skill
        • +ve or -ve
        • smash in tennis affects current learning of overhead clear
      • negative transfer
        • ways of limiting:
          • practice conflicting skills together
            • over learn subroutine before progressing
        • skill hinders learning/performance of another skill
        • respond incorrectly to stimuli
          • differences in kinaesthetic feedback cause confusion
        • flexed arm when throwing hinders straight arm bowling in cricket
      • bilateral transfer
        • transfer from limb to limb
        • +ve or -ve
        • kicking football with both feet
      • positive transfer
        • how to optimise
          • clear demo of where transfer takes place
            • make aware of transferable elements
        • skill helps learning/performance of another skill
        • develops correct motor programme
          • transfers s-r bond of one skill to another
        • arm action of throwing ball helps serving arm in tennis
      • proactive transfer
        • previous learnt skill affects learning/performance of another skill
        • +ve or -ve
        • tennis player takes up badminton
          • old to new skill
    • theories of learning
      • cognitive learning theory
        • performer understands whole problem before performing skill correctly
      • operant conditioning
        • trial and error learning
          • test various methods of achieving goal until find one that works
            • slow proces
        • positive reinforcement
          • rewarding correct response with praise
            • strengthens S-R bond
              • response more likely to be repeated
        • negative reinforcement
          • removal of unpleasant consequence from coach when correct response shown
            • strengthens S-R bond
              • stop shouting at performer
        • punishment
          • action performed not desirable
            • weakens S-R bond
              • red card
        • Thorndyke's Laws
          • law of effect
            • negative reaction
              • S-R bond weakened
            • skill followed by positive reactrion
              • S-R bond strengthened
          • law of exercise
            • rehearsing S-R bond helps strengthen them and reinforce correct skill
          • law of readiness
            • mentally and physically able to perform skill efficiently
              • if not S-R bond weakened
        • correct response to situation being rewarded
          • reinforces correct response
          • behaviour shaped by coach
      • social learning theory
        • Bandura's theory
          • motor production
            • physical movement to perform skill
          • retention
            • create mental picture
              • practice using mental rehearsal
          • motivation
            • learners want to replicate skill
          • attention
            • watch demos of skill aimed at ability level/short/role model
        • learn new skills by observing others
          • create mental picture
          • learn through demos
          • copy from role model
    • stages of learning
      • associative
        • characteristics
          • fewer errors
            • motor program develops
              • monitor own feedback
        • process
          • begin to use intrinsic feedback
            • pay attention to concurrent feedback
              • practice under variety of situations
                • competition introduced
                  • consolidate of correct movement responses
        • teacher cues
          • distribute corrctive feedback
            • lots of practice
              • stress correct basics
        • longer than cognitive
        • better timed/more accurate
      • cognitive
        • characteristics
          • lots of errors
            • cant screen out irrelevant info
              • inconsistent performance
                • slow/jerky
        • process
          • try understand demands of task
            • create mental model using demo
              • give performance full attention
                • begin to attempt skill using mental model
                  • feedback given after:clear/short/simple
          • biggest rate of improvement
          • little/no practice until end of stage
        • teacher cues
          • corrective feedback
            • short verbal cues
              • demos
      • autonomous
        • characteristics
          • decreased attention demands
            • increased confidence
              • performance gains slower
        • process
          • skill improvement continues but less rapid
            • high levels of accuracy
              • habitual
                • analyse own performance
                  • tactics
        • teacher cues
          • focus on strategy
            • work on mental focus
              • encourage/ motivate
    • guidance
      • visual
        • +ve
          • all levels of performance
            • young/inexperienced
              • easily absorbed
                • Untitled
                  • Untitled
        • demo/video
        • -ve
          • limited value for groups
            • dependant on coach ability
              • dependant on expensive equip
      • mechanical
        • +ve
          • confidence
            • develop kinaesthesis
              • safety
        • equipment to assist
        • -ve
          • expensive
            • become reliant
              • learner cant correct own mistakes
      • verbal
        • +ve
          • highlight key teaching points
            • experienced performers
              • immediate
        • describes skill
          • feedback
        • -ve
          • info overload
            • boring
              • difficult describing some techniques
      • manual
        • +ve
          • indivdual attention
            • prevent errors
              • assist all types of performers
        • physically move into corrrect position
          • support them
        • -ve
          • not good in groups
            • fel different from performing skill alone
    • feedback
      • knowledge of performance
        • +ve
          • autonomous
        • receive info about movement patern
          • internal/external
        • -ve
          • gained through experience
            • take long time to develop
      • knowledge of resukt
        • +ve
          • all levels of skill
            • modify skills
        • see results of action
          • eternal+terminal
        • -ve
          • only used after movement
            • not effective in closed sklls
      • extrinsic
        • +ve
          • strengths/weaknesses
            • cognitive/associative
              • understand correct movement
        • received from outside(coach/players)
          • supports intrinsic
        • -ve
          • become dependant so less effective in developing kinaesthesis
      • intrinsic
        • +ve
          • make adjustments during performance
            • autonomous stage
              • helps fluency
        • kinaesthetic feedback
          • received from proprioceptors
        • -ve
          • hinder learning if overused
            • demotivating at cognitive/associative
      • positive
        • performance successful
          • strengthens S-R bond
        • +ve
          • cognitive/associative
            • motivation/confidence
        • -ve
      • negative
        • +ve
          • autonomous
            • refine skills
        • performance unsuccessful
          • reduces chance of bad habits
        • -ve
          • hinder learning if overused
            • demotivating at cognitive/associative

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Physical Education resources:

See all Physical Education resources »See all Acquiring movement skills resources »