UNIT 1 LESSON 2: Functions and Characteristics of the CPU

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  • Created on: 18-04-19 19:24
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  • UNIT 1 LESSON 2: FUNCTIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CPU
    • ALU
      • Arithmetic Logic Unit
      • performs 2 types of operations on data
        • logic operations
          • < >, =
        • arithmetic operations
          • +, -, *, /
    • Control Unit
      • controls input and output of data
      • controls and monitors hardware attached to the system
      • controls the flow of data within the CPU
    • Factors that affect the performance of the CPU
      • cache size
        • how big the cache is, affects the speed
        • small amount of very fast, expensive memory in the CPU
        • can be accessed faster than regular main memory (RAM)
      • clock speed
        • how many instructions are done per second
        • cycles per second measured in Hertz (Hz)
        • the faster the clock speed, the faster the instructions are processed
      • core number
        • how many sets of the parts CPU it has
        • a dual-core processor has 2 processors linked. a quad-core processor has 4 processors linked
        • a quad-core processor working on many different tasks simultaneously, under ideal conditions can be up to 4 times faster than a single-core processor
    • cache
      • Levels of cache memory
        • CPU
          • registers
            • level 1 cache
              • level 2 cache
                • physical RAM (main memory)
                  • disc storage (virtual RAM. hard drive)
                    • < - capacity ->
                • ^ cost per byte / access speed
      • CPU or processor cache
        • cache used by the CPU to reduce average time to access memory
      • disk cache
        • mechanism for improving the time it takes to read from or write to a hard disk drive
      • benefits of cache
        • other data from CPU in level 2, 95% of the time
        • most data used in the CPU in level 1
      • web cache
        • folder of web pages that is maintenance by the web browsers
      • memory cache
        • is RAM ht a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular RAM
    • embedded systems
      • it has a single microprocessor that includes RAM, ROM and a CPU
      • cars, washing machines, DVD player
      • all the software it needs is installed at manufacture
      • microprocessors / CPUs to control their functions, unique

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