Constitutions

  • Created by: Eleri M
  • Created on: 23-11-18 10:28
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  • UK Constitution
    • Regional and Local Government Reform
      • Local authorities can adapt and cater to needs of people
      • More efficient to run services locally
      • Creates a 'postcode lottery' as different councils run services to different standards
        • DECENTRALISATION
    • Devolution
      • Enables policies that meet needs of people at local level
        • DECENTRALISATION
      • Scottish Independence has been revived
        • DECENTRALISATION
    • Electoral Reform
      • Made more proportional results in Scottish Elections
      • FPTP delivers clear mandate and strong government
        • DEMOCRATISATION
      • Under-representation of smaller parties
        • DEMOCRATISATION
      • Produces governments with a majority of seats but minority of votes
    • Nature of the Constitution
      • Can easily be modified
      • Parliamentary sovereignty is kept
    • Human Rights Reform
      • Incorporated European convention on Human Rights into national law.
        • HUMAN RIGHTS
      • Is not entrenched so government can modify it is needed
        • HUMAN RIGHTS
      • Government can take away these rights by majority vote in Parliament
      • Need British Bill of Rights
      • House Of Lords Reform
        • It holds the government accountable
          • DEMOCRATISATION
        • an elected chamber would mirror House of Commons and reduce range of experience and knowledge
          • DEMOCRATISATION
        • Lacks democratic legitimacy as members aren't elected
      • House of Commons Reform
        • Select committees have become more effective
          • MODERNISATION
        • Lack of government accountability
      • Other Countries
        • France
          • 1958
          • Was made after a military coup
            • Parliament was forced to dissolve
          • Amendments are proposed by the president, passed by both houses, then there is a referendum
          • Is a codified constitution
        • Germany
          • 1949
          • Was made after World War II
          • Have a codified constitution
        • USA
          • 1787
          • Was made after America became independent
          • Is a codified constitution
          • Bill of Rights
          • Three branches of government
          • Gun law problems
        • Canada
          • Uncodified Constitution
            • Allows flexibility and easy change
          • The constitution is based on a collection of constitution documents and constitution acts.
      • Is Greater Devolution Require
        • Demand for more self-involvement
          • more demand for national governments
          • demand for devolution was over-exaggerated in Wales
        • Involvement
          • Low turnout in devolved bodies in elections
        • Regional Assemblies
          • different parts of UK need different things
          • where do you stop?
        • English Parliament
          • How would it relate to Westminster
          • Would give more equality across UK
          • Worked for other parts of UK
          • Most see Westminster as 'their' Parliament
          • EVEL makes Scottish MPs second-class
            • would be stopped by devolution in England
          • England is 84% of the UK population so would dominate Westminster
        • Was only a short term fix
        • Peace
          • There has been peace in Northern Ireland since
          • the assembly of northern Ireland hasn't sat in 18 months
        • Democratic
          • the government will be closer to the people
          • Taxes might need to be raised in Scotland as they are less prosperous
        • Workload
          • reduces workload on Westminster
          • Creates confusion and increased cost
      • Devolution
        • Scottish
          • Was set up in 1999 dues to Scotland Act 1998
          • Uses AMS and FPTP
            • Balances strong government and what the people want
          • Have justice, police and housing powers
          • Later got taxation, borrowing and air weapons powers
          • Has increased sense of nationalism and could lead to break up of UK
            • Scotland leaving EU against its will
        • Welsh
          • granted in 1999 due to 1997 referendum and Wales Act 1998
          • Uses the Additional Member System and FPTP
          • Were given transport, police and education powers
          • had executive /secondary legislative powers
          • Had unequal powers to Scotland and Ireland
          • In 2017 the Wales Act made the system from like Scotland
        • Northern Irish
          • After 1998 Good Friday Agreement
            • Brought Unionists and Nationalists together
          • Uses single transferable vote system
          • Have control of corporation tax, health and social services and education
          • On the short-term was successful as it reduced violence between the sides
          • On the longterm it wasn't successful as there is currently no sitting assembly since 20117
            • Westminster has all the power again due to lack of agreements
      • Should the constitution be codified
        • Codification would educate public about constitutional issues
          • promotes greater respect for political institutions
        • would be extremely difficult to find consensus on what to include
          • There is no public demand
          • would entail years of debate and consultation
        • Entrenchment would make it impossible to amend
          • an entrenched bill of rights would provide a stronger protection of individual liberties
        • uncodified constitutions have more flexibility
        • a strong executive provided that it's answerable to parliament can make decisions quickly
          • Would not be possible with a codified constitution
        • Few codified constitutions are self-explanatory
        • with uncodified governments can push boundaries /increase their power.
          • Codified would give greater clarity about rights
        • the executive and parliament could be judged by a clear set of rules
          • increases legitimacy of the political process
        • Unjustified degree of power in hands of unelected
          • codified constitutions challenge parliamentary sovereignty
            • it would bind future parliaments

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