Tudor Rebellions - Tyrone's Rebellion

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  • Tyrone's  Rebellion 1594-1603
    • causes
      • Ireland was increasingly neglected by Elizabeth and her council
      • the 60 year old deputy, Fitzwilliam, could not control the bitter disputes between factions in Dublin and clan warfare. Increased accusations of cattle raiding, executions, etc
      • Irish chiefdoms saw their own system under threat and trust in the English deputies plummeted
      • War between England and Spain meant expenditure on Ireland had to be low
        • the country had to be secured, however, in case the Spanish used it as a base for an English attack
          • this is what happened during Tyrone
    • "a creature of our own"
      • The province of Ulster was intensely Gaelic and hostile. Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, and a Gaelic chieftain was educated in the English Pale surrounding Dublin
        • He initially came to the defence of English garrisons when other clans attacked them and was an enforcer of the crown
      • He initially came to the defence of English garrisons when other clans attacked them and was an enforcer of the crown
      • Elizabeth called him a "creature of our own" and her government expected O'Neill to help drive through their policies of reform in Ulster
        • partly because of his skills in negotiation, but partly because he was an Anglicised Irishman
        • but he believed he had not been adequately rewarded and was gradually drawn into leading a rebellion against the English
          • he wanted to be recognised as "the O'Neill", to expel English settlers, and Anglo-Irish administration, and to achieve independence
      • but he believed he had not been adequately rewarded and was gradually drawn into leading a rebellion against the English
        • he wanted to be recognised as "the O'Neill", to expel English settlers, and Anglo-Irish administration, and to achieve independence
    • Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone
      • he was born and died a Catholic, he did not object to attending Protestant churches while in London
      • while religious differences between Protestantism and Catholicism may have added to the growing animosity between Tyrone and the government, it was not a principle cause
      • Tyrone increasingly believed that the security of his position was best secure by rebelling against the authority of the English government in Ulster rather than by allying with it
      • what made his rebellion so different was that it signalled a nationwide revolt against England that lasted nine years
      • Irishness became synonymous with Catholicism. O'Neill claimed that it was the duty of Irish Catholics to oppose the Protestant English
    • leadership
      • after Yellow Ford, Tyrone was seen as an inspiration by all Irish who were hostile to government policies and fighting broke out in plantation settlements throughout the provinces colonised by the English
      • Together with the Earls of Desmond and Kildare, they used their positions as heads of clans to mobilise large numbers of support
      • As the war progressed, O'Neill acquired cult like status as the leader who would deliver Ireland from the English. He became the most effective Irish leader in this period.
      • Irish rebellions were generally comprised of a few hundred men at most, yet O'Neill's national uprising of 1595 was exceptional in that he was able to rally more than 6000 troops
        • Furthermore, Yellow Ford in 1598 was remarkable as the English had 4000 troops, yet still suffered a heavy defeat. The English were cut down in their thousands
    • The Earl of Essex
      • Elizabeth landed a force of 17000 men and 1300 horses on the east coast under the command of Essex
        • yet Essex wandered around Ireland for 6 months, avoiding Ulster, and lost 3/4s of his men to desertion or disease
          • Elizabeth ordered Essex to attack O'Neill, but with his force of 4000, he made a truce instead
            • with the failure of Essex, Tyrone seemed to have accepted his role as national leader and led his forces to central and southern Ireland in 1599
    • The Spanish
      • O'Neill was successful in getting support from Phillip III of Spain, who saw an opportunity to attack and English and succeed where his father had failed
        • In 1601, the  Spanish landed at Kinsale, 3400 men. Elizabeth had at least been convinced of the necessity to send the experienced military commander, Mountjoy
    • the government response to the threat of disorder
      • the Tudors viewed Tyrone's rebellion as a serious threat, partly on account of the size and widespread support in Ireland for O'Neill's rebellion but mainly because of its potential to receive assistance from Spain which endangered national security
      • Financially the national uprising cost an estimate £2 million
      • Much of Ulster was devastated, cattle and crops had been destroyed, the colonies in Connaught and Munster had been swept away, and social divisions between the New and the Old English and Gaelic natives had resurfaced
  • The Battle of Kinsale 1601
    • The Spanish army that came to liberate Ireland were under siege. The Spanish waited for the Irish troops to arrive
    • When the Spanish landed they were initially defeated by 6000 English troops
    • O'Neill's troops werwe in the north, but Spanish fleet landed in the wrong place in the Southern town of Kinsale
    • a turning point in Irish history, and altered the balance of power. The Irish should have won the battle of Kinsale
    • Tyrone's  Rebellion 1594-1603
      • causes
        • Ireland was increasingly neglected by Elizabeth and her council
        • the 60 year old deputy, Fitzwilliam, could not control the bitter disputes between factions in Dublin and clan warfare. Increased accusations of cattle raiding, executions, etc
        • Irish chiefdoms saw their own system under threat and trust in the English deputies plummeted
        • War between England and Spain meant expenditure on Ireland had to be low
          • the country had to be secured, however, in case the Spanish used it as a base for an English attack
            • this is what happened during Tyrone
      • "a creature of our own"
        • The province of Ulster was intensely Gaelic and hostile. Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, and a Gaelic chieftain was educated in the English Pale surrounding Dublin
          • Elizabeth called him a "creature of our own" and her government expected O'Neill to help drive through their policies of reform in Ulster
            • partly because of his skills in negotiation, but partly because he was an Anglicised Irishman
        • Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone
          • he was born and died a Catholic, he did not object to attending Protestant churches while in London
          • while religious differences between Protestantism and Catholicism may have added to the growing animosity between Tyrone and the government, it was not a principle cause
          • Tyrone increasingly believed that the security of his position was best secure by rebelling against the authority of the English government in Ulster rather than by allying with it
          • what made his rebellion so different was that it signalled a nationwide revolt against England that lasted nine years
          • Irishness became synonymous with Catholicism. O'Neill claimed that it was the duty of Irish Catholics to oppose the Protestant English
        • leadership
          • after Yellow Ford, Tyrone was seen as an inspiration by all Irish who were hostile to government policies and fighting broke out in plantation settlements throughout the provinces colonised by the English
          • Together with the Earls of Desmond and Kildare, they used their positions as heads of clans to mobilise large numbers of support
          • As the war progressed, O'Neill acquired cult like status as the leader who would deliver Ireland from the English. He became the most effective Irish leader in this period.
          • Irish rebellions were generally comprised of a few hundred men at most, yet O'Neill's national uprising of 1595 was exceptional in that he was able to rally more than 6000 troops
            • Furthermore, Yellow Ford in 1598 was remarkable as the English had 4000 troops, yet still suffered a heavy defeat. The English were cut down in their thousands
        • The Earl of Essex
          • Elizabeth landed a force of 17000 men and 1300 horses on the east coast under the command of Essex
            • yet Essex wandered around Ireland for 6 months, avoiding Ulster, and lost 3/4s of his men to desertion or disease
              • Elizabeth ordered Essex to attack O'Neill, but with his force of 4000, he made a truce instead
                • with the failure of Essex, Tyrone seemed to have accepted his role as national leader and led his forces to central and southern Ireland in 1599
        • The Spanish
          • O'Neill was successful in getting support from Phillip III of Spain, who saw an opportunity to attack and English and succeed where his father had failed
            • In 1601, the  Spanish landed at Kinsale, 3400 men. Elizabeth had at least been convinced of the necessity to send the experienced military commander, Mountjoy
        • the government response to the threat of disorder
          • the Tudors viewed Tyrone's rebellion as a serious threat, partly on account of the size and widespread support in Ireland for O'Neill's rebellion but mainly because of its potential to receive assistance from Spain which endangered national security
          • Financially the national uprising cost an estimate £2 million
          • Much of Ulster was devastated, cattle and crops had been destroyed, the colonies in Connaught and Munster had been swept away, and social divisions between the New and the Old English and Gaelic natives had resurfaced

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