LEDC CLIMATIC HAZARD CASE STUDY

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  • Typhoon Haiyan, Phillipines, 2013
    • How it occured
      • Form 5-15 north and south of equator
        • Strong trade winds drive storm
          • From east to west
      • Sea temperature 27
      • Water at least 60m deep
      • Air above warm sea rises rapidly
        • Casuses low pressure
          • As air rises...
            • Cools and condenses
              • Clouds
                • If sea is warm enough...
                  • Upward movement sucks in more warm air
                    • This evaporates more water as the storm builds
                      • More this happens, the larger the source of energy and life of storm.
          • In the centre...
            • Area of high pressure
            • No clouds
            • The eye
      • Storm loses energy when heat and moisture disappears.
        • Reaches land
        • Moves to higher latitudes
      • Saffir-Simpson scale- category 5
    • Where?
      • Several hundred km south east of Pohnpei
        • In federated states of Micronesia
    • Fast Facts
      • 235mph wind
      • 375 miles wide
      • Storm surge of 20m
    • Primary effects
      • 11.5 million effected
      • 5,209 dead
      • 544,000 dispaced
      • 130,000 houses destroyed
      • 1,215 evacuation centres set up
        • Hard to access people in rural areas
      • 2.5 million in need of food aid due to contaminated water
        • WHO sent 3,000 diarreheal  kits and 120,000 people were given food for a month
      • East Visayas
        • Most affected
          • 5,877 dead
          • 26,000 injured
    • Secondary effects
      • Rice and sugar areas of the Phillipines have been destroyed Sugar
      • Sugar Regulatroy Administration
        • 50,000-120,000 tonnes of sugar lost
      • Phillipine government
        • 71,000 hectares affected farmland
          • $85 million worth of damage
      • Devastating effect on wildlife
      • Devastating affect on employment
      • Biggest producer of coconut oil
        • Many plantations have been flattened
          • Affect trade in cocunt
    • Are storms increasing?
      • Increase in carbon dioxide
        • Increases greenhouse effect
          • Increases global warming
            • Seas are warmer
              • Perfect for storms
    • Prevention
      • 800,000 move to evacuation centres before typhoon hit
        • However, brick and mrtor trucutres were not enough to withstand the jet forces and walls of waves
          • 2 days before typhoon hit....
            • International Red Cross and Red Cresecent Societies predicted a typhoon
              • More than 750,000 evacuated
                • Thursday and Friday- PAGASA sent regular warnings of a 7m storm surge
                  • Some didn't beleive it
    • Monitoring
      • 2nd November JTWC monitored the low pressure area
        • 6th November- Category 5
          • Emergency Response
            • World Vision
              • Distributed food and water to 400,000 people
              • 200 local members took part
            • First emergency teams
              • Arrived in Tacloban
                • They were expert advisors
                  • 8UK government commercial and military flights
                    • Gave 16,000 hygiene kits
                    • 17,000 shelter kits
              • CAFOD
                • Provided essential items
    • Recovery
      • Red Cross and Red Cresent Society
        • Distributed cash grants to 75,000 households
          • Meet 25% of emergency shelter needs
            • Provide tents to 140,000 households
              • Labour Department has given jobs to 33,388 people
                • Vowed to replace and repair 3,000 fishing boats
    • Reconstruction
      • Plan to construct 2,313 classrooms
        • 101 finished
        • 1,095 constructed
      • 5.8km of 116km of national roads constructed
      • 3/34 bridges
      • 33/99 flood control defenses
      • $763 million pledged. Only recieved 50%
      • Prevention
        • Encouraged to have roof and walls to withstand wind
          • Survival kit with 3 days of water supply
            • Evacuation centres and hazard maps with clear evacuation routes

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