Types of Volcanoes

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  • Created by: Labake
  • Created on: 05-11-14 15:23
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  • Types of Volcano
    • Shield/Basic Volcano
      • Large
      • Low
      • Wide base
      • Gentle slopes
      • Found at Constructive margins (Iceland- Mid Atlantic Ridge)
      • Found at hotspots e.g. Mauna Loa, Hawaii
      • Hawaiian Eruptions
        • Gentle
        • Runny Basalt lava
        • Low Viscosity
    • Composite/ Stratovolcano
      • Large
      • Cone Shaped
      • Steep sided
      • Has secondary cones (vents)
      • Made of layers of ash and lava
      • E.g. Mt. Pinatubo
      • Vesuvian Eruptions
        • Non-frequent
        • Violent
        • Viscous andesitic lava
      • Found around destructive subduction margins
    • Ash and Cinder Cones
      • Steep sided
      • Concave
      • Syymetrical
      • Vary from 2m to 100's of m high
      • Bowl shaped crater
      • E.g. Sunset crater in Arizona
      • Various types of eruptions
        • Emissions of tephra
        • Gassy lava (explosive)
      • Found around shield and composite volcanoes
    • Acid Dome Volcano
      • Convex
      • Steep sided
      • E.g. Mount Pelee on Martinique
      • Peleean Eruptions
        • Unfrequent
        • Very violent
        • Very viscous rhyolitic lava
        • Pyroclastic flows
      • Found around destructive subduction margins
    • Calderas
      • Steep sided
      • Missing summit replaced by massive crater that can fill with water
      • Diameter of crater can extend to km's
      • Various types of eruptions
        • Pyroclastic flow
        • Rhyolitic and Andesitic lava
      • Found at destructive and constructive margins
    • Types of Lava
      • Basic
        • Runny,low viscosity with low silica content
        • Gas bubbles expand = effusive, fluid eruptions
        • Formed from partial melting of mantle
          • At constructive margins and hotspots
      • Andesitic
        • Medium viscosity and silica content
        • Formed from partial melting of subducting oceanic plates
          • Found at destructive margins
      • Rhyolitic
        • Highly viscous with high silica content
        • Explosive eruptions- gas bubbles can't expand so pressure builds
          • Magma can solidify and plug vent= pressure
            • Andesitic
              • Medium viscosity and silica content
              • Formed from partial melting of subducting oceanic plates
                • Found at destructive margins
        • Formed from partial melting of continental lithosphere
          • Found at continental and oceanic subduction margins

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