Synovial Joints

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  • Created by: Wymer-7
  • Created on: 11-03-15 12:59
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  • Types of Synovial Joint
    • Hinge
      • Hinge joints are formed between two or more bones where the bones can only move along one axis to flex or extend.
      • An example of when the hinge joint is used in sport is football. When a player kicks a ball they use their knee joint, which flexes and then extends.
    • Pivot
      • A ring of one bone fits over a peg of another, allowing controlled rotational movement such as the joint of the atlas and the axis in the neck
      • The pivot joint in the neck allows the head to move side to side. Example of a pivot joint in sport is when you are stretching and you turn your head side to side.
    • Ball and Socket
      • The round end of one bone fits into a cup-shaped socket in the other bone, allowing movement in all directions
      • Examples of ball and socket joints are the hip and shoulder. An example of when the ball and socket joint is used in sport is cricket. When a player is bowling they use their shoulder which goes all they way round.
    • Ellipsoid/Condyloid
      • These are modified versions of a ball and socket joints, in which a bump on one bone sits in the hollow formed by another. Movement is backwards and forwards and from side to side. Ligaments often prevent rotation.
    • Gliding
      • These joints allow movement over a flat surface in all directions, but is restricted by ligaments or a bony prominence. For example in the carpals and tarsals
      • An example of a physical activity that uses the gliding joint is dribbling the ball in hockey by moving the hockey stick over and back
    • Saddle
      • These are similar to Ellipsoid joints but the surfaces are concave and convex. Movemtn occurs backwards and forwards and from side to side. An example of this would be the base of the thumb
      • An example of this in sport could be when gripping a bat in table tennis


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