Types of long term memory

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  • Types of long-term memory
    • Procedural memory- used to unconsciously carry out tasks, e.g. making tea
    • Declarative memory- of facts and events consciously recalled. Includes:
      • Episodic memory- more personal:
        • Autobiographical- for specific, personal life events, like a holiday
          • Flashbulb memory- generally, a detailed, vivid description of one event which lasts a lifetime. Often life-changing autobiographical/ historical events with emotional arousal making recall vivid
            • Conway et al.- 1/3rd+ of the original sample of 923, interviewed again 11 months after Thatcher's resignation, mostly had an accurate memory (86% did)
        • Experimental memory- e.g. learning word lists already in semantic memory, now tied to the specific episode of processing the info for an experiment
      • Semantic memory- hierarchically organised info, systematically linked to related info
        • Bower et al- PPs presented with 4 trials of 28 hierarchically organised words recalled 73, whereas they recalled only 21 if placed randomly
    • Is there evidence?
      • HM- could recall events before his operation and procedural memory was intact, but his semantic and episodic memory was affected, e.g. he couldn't recall his breakfast
      • Clive Wearing- developed 'moment to moment' memory- however, he still retained some procedural memories and had declarative knowledge
      • Many everyday tasks need stored interaction


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