Types of Power

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  • Types of Power
    • Soft
      • Ability of states to persuade others without force or coercion.
        • Culture
        • Political values
        • Diplomacy / foreign policy
      • UK and EU recognised as leading soft powers
        • English language most common second-language, spoken by 1 billion
      • Some goals, such as stopping N. Korea from developing nuclear weapons, can only be achieved through hard power
        • Terrorists unlikely to be persuaded through attraction
    • Hard
      • Coercive power = wielded through threats
        • Military
          • e.g. promise of military protection
        • Economic
          • e.g. reduction of trade barriers
      • Damages the credibilty and reputation of states that employ it, e.f. USA after Iraq and Afghanistan
      • Realists: military force is the ultimate instrument in guaranteeing states' own survival
      • Economic globalisation makes state war too costly, so states compete through trade rather than war.
        • Dell Theory of Conflict Resolution
    • Smart
      • Skilful combination of hard and soft power
      • 2008 election of Barack Obama
        • Iran - used damaging economic sanctions as well as diplomacy to reach out to the Iranian public
      • About choosing the right tools for each specific situation
    • Joseph Nye
      • American political scientist
    • Power
      • Three types of power
        • Joseph Nye
          • American political scientist
        • Power as capability
        • Power as a relationship
        • Power as structural


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