Types of LTM

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  • Types of Long term Memory. 2 Main types: explicit (knowing that) and implicit (knowing how)
    • Episodic Memory (Explicit)
      • Personal memories of events including contextual details and emotional tone
      • Episode: event or group of events occurring as part of a larger sequence
      • Contains 3 elements: specific detail, context and emotion
      • Evidence from brain scans: uses the temporal lobe and frontal lobe. Connected by the hippocampus to form an episode.
    • Procedural Memory (Implicit)
      • Memory of how to do things - automatic as a result of repeated practice
      • About skills and remembering how to do somehting
      • Acquired though practice and are less aware of them because they are automatic.
      • Evidence from brain scans: Associated with the Cerebellum, basal ganglia and limbic system.
    • Semantic memory (explicit)
      • Shared memories for facts and knowledge
      • Knowledge about the world which is shared by everyone (2+2=4)
      • Begin as episodic memories, but over time the location and context of learning something is forgotten
      • Evidence from brain scans: relies on the Temporal Lobe
    • Case of HM: Hippocampus was removed. He could remember all LTM's but could only from new procedual ones, showing episodic and semantic are both linked to the hippocampus
      • It is difficult to see what parts of the brain has been affected during brain damage until patient has died so it is difficult to simultaneously decide what area is affected and test participants memory making ability.
      • Damage to a certain part doesn't mean that part is responsible for a behavior, it may be part of a relay.
    • 4th kind of LTM: Priming (eg if person is given a list of words including 'yellow' then asked to name a fruit, chances are that fruit will be 'banana') replies are automatic and unconscious.


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