Types of culture

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  • Types of Culture
    • What is culture?
      • Language, Beliefs, Customs, Values, Knowledge, Skills, Roles, Norms.
      • Socially transmitted
      • A subculture is a group within society who share values etc. which are different to mainstream norms
    • Mass and Folk Culture
      • mass culture is replacing folk culture
      • Folk culture is the culture of pre-industrial society.
        • I.e. Folk dancing, folk songs, fairy tales, folk remedies.
      • Redfield - folk societies were based on strong extended families
      • Simnel - urban societies show a reduced sense of community.
      • Mass culture is not just the effect of the media but also refers to fashion and other forms of consumption.
    • High and low culture
      • The elite tend to have a distinct culture from the masses
        • I.e. Shakespeare, opera,art etc. all associated with high culture.
      • The masses enjoy 'low culture'
        • I.e. Soaps, reality tv, fast food
      • Aspects of high culture are seen as good for society but they dont make as much money.
      • Marxists argue that high culture is just ruling class culture
        • Bourdieu - High culture gives status to elitist groups
    • Popular culture
      • Based on the idea of an active audience
        • Mass and low culture are both based on the idea of a passive audience
        • The audience shape and change culture
    • Global culture
      • Giddens - technological change has led to globalisation.
      • Klein and Sklair - large TNCs are involved in the majority of cultural production
        • Sklair - TNCs and the global media have more power than nation states
      • Globalisation will replace cultural diversity
        • Cultural Imperialsism
        • Klein - theres already a trend towards cultural homogenity
      • Globalisation is a two-way process
        • Many countries are now multicultural societies
        • Postmodernists argue this allows people to consume a plurality of cultures
          • Globalisation leads to a hybridity rather than one being imposed on another


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