Turning to crime

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  • Turning to crime
    • Upbringing
      • Wikstrom
        • The most disadvantaged 5% of society are 100 times likely to have mulitple problems than advantaged 50%
        • Risk factors: Factors that will make it more likely to commit a crime.
        • Protective factors: Factors that prevent criminal behaviour
        • Investigated on 2000 year 10 students
        • 44.8% of males + 30.6% of females have committed at least one studied crime
          • 9.8% males + 3.8% females committed a serious crime
        • Weakness
          • Can be considered ethnocentric because the ethic groups were not known
          • Can be considered reductionist because it only forcuses on a certain number of individual and lifestyle factors
          • Demand characteristics in the interviews
        • Strength
          • Both qualitative and quantitative data was collected from interviews
      • Sutherland
        • Created 9 principles, all relative to how criminal behavior is learnt
        • Based upon the Differential association theory
        • The theory emphasizes the social-psychological processes by which people produce a definition inside their head that an action is appropiate
        • Application: Can be used to explain why gangs think it's appropriate to commit criminal behaviour
          • However, it falls short when applying to crimes acted out by a lone individual
        • Strength
          • Not specific to one area; the theory can be used for any culture, gender or location (Non-ethnocentric)
          • Highly replicable because it is just a theory, researches can use this theory as background to experiments
        • Weakness
          • Reductionist: Only considers nuture, all criminal behaviour is learnt from a situation + environment
          • Ignores peoples free will
      • Farrington
        • The aim was to document the duration of offending behavior from childhood to adulthood in families
        • The information was collected through questionnaires by teachers, criminal records, gained through families, interviews and tests and school reports
        • 411 boys, aged 8+9, east London, white working class, by  the end average age was 48
        • Strength
          • Longitudinal research: allows us to see the development of behavior over time; rich, in-depth data
          • Large enough sample used, representative of target group
          • Both qualitative and quantitative data
        • Weakness
          • Sample: only males used, can be considered ethnocentric becaue only white East London males used
          • Can be considered reductionist, only focuses on environmental factors
        • Most chronic offenders all shared similar childhood characteristics: low popularity, convicted parents, young mother, large family size
    • Cognitive
      • Youchelson + Samenow
        • Aim: To understand ciminal personality, develop ways of treating personality disorderrs, encourage criminals to understand legal responsibility and develop ways of preventing criminal behaviour
        • 255 male offenders; roughly half in mental hospital, half in nomral prison
        • Interviews
        • Thinking errors: Negative thoughts that distort or twist the truth
        • Freudian based therapy, get to the root of their criminal behaviour
        • 52 thinking errors were distinguishable
        • Strength
          • Many of the thinking errors they found can be relative to modern-day diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder
          • Found a large chunk of thinking errors that be used to distinguish behaviour
        • Weakness
          • No control group: Non-criminals may be just as likely to display these errors in the study
          • Deamdn characteristics: Patients may have lied and gave answers they thought the dcotor would want to hear
          • Over time the majoirty of participants ropped out and only 30 completed the programme; not represetnative
        • They lack empathy, angry, irritable set themselves apart
      • Gudjohnsson + Bownes
        • To examine the relationship between type of offence + attributions offenders make about their criminal act
        • 'Interval' vs. 'External' attribution Internal: Blaming yourself External: Blaming society + Environment
        • 80 Criminals who were serving sentences in Northern Ireland.
          • First group 20 Homicide
          • Second group 40 sex offenders
          • Third group 20 property crime
        • Strength
          • Considers both individual and situational influences
        • Criminals make attributions about their crimes which allow them to reduce any feelings of guilt; however, Gudjohnsson found that thelevel of blame differs with the type of crime
        • Weakness
          • Unrepresentative sample; small number from Ireland
          • Ethnocentric
      • Kohlberg
        • To find evidence in support of a progression through stages of moral development
        • Used a sample of 58 boys from Chicago, between the ages of 7-16
        • Each boy was given a 2 hour interview where they were asked to solve 10 dilemma, most famous one being Heinz dlemma
        • Younger boys tended to perform at stages 1 + , older boys at stages 3 + 4
        • Great explanation on the stages and study https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Onkd8tChC2A
        • Strengths
          • The method focused on the reasoning behind the judgement which gave greater insight into moral development
          • Cross cultural research shows that Kohlberg’s theory can be applied across all cultures
        • Weakness
          • The sample is biased, only male participants
          • The dilemma are artifical, meaning the study lacks ecological vailidity
    • Biology
      • Brunner et al.
        • To explain the behavior of a large family in the Netherlands where the males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal violent behavior
        • Study was based on five affected males within the family
        • Data was collected from analysis of urine samples
        • In each of the five males a point mutation was identified in the X chromosome of the gene responsible for production of MAOA
        • Impaired serotonin metabolism is likely to be responsible for the mental retardation in the familyin the and evidently the violent behaviour within the family
        • Weakness
          • Only one sample in the Netherland, only males in the sample, not generalisable
        • Strength
          • Sceneific analysis, lack ofhuman error
      • Raine
        • To  understand antisocial and aggressive behavior in children with a biological focus
        • A review article
        • He reviewed and summarised the findings from a selection of articles
        • Raine believed that a low resting heart rate is a good predictor of an ndividual who will seek excitement to raise arousal level, creating fearless temperament
        • Activity in the pre-frontal lobes has been shown to be lower in implusive indidivuals who are likely to be anti-social and aggressive
        • Weakness
          • Only considers nature side
          • Just a review article, no experiment carried out lack of cause and effect
        • Strengths
          • Use of scientific equipment, reduces the risk of human error
      • Daly + WIlson
        • Aim: To find out if homicide rates would vary as a function of local life expency
        • Correlational study using survery data from police, schools and local demographic records
        • The study examined local communities in Chicago which had lower then average life expectancies
        • They found life expectancy proved to be the best predictor of neighbourhood-specific homicide rates
        • Strengths
        • Weakness
          • The study was correlational, meaning no cause and effect was found
          • Only investigates males, no females were in the sample
  • Kohlberg
    • To find evidence in support of a progression through stages of moral development
    • Used a sample of 58 boys from Chicago, between the ages of 7-16
    • Each boy was given a 2 hour interview where they were asked to solve 10 dilemma, most famous one being Heinz dlemma
    • Younger boys tended to perform at stages 1 + , older boys at stages 3 + 4
    • Great explanation on the stages and study https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Onkd8tChC2A
    • Strengths
      • The method focused on the reasoning behind the judgement which gave greater insight into moral development
      • Cross cultural research shows that Kohlberg’s theory can be applied across all cultures
    • Weakness
      • The sample is biased, only male participants
      • The dilemma are artifical, meaning the study lacks ecological vailidity

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