Tropical revolving storms

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  • Tropical Revolving Storms
    • Description
      • Scientists don't know exactly how they are formed but they do know the conditions needed
        • a disturbance near the sea-surface that triggers the storm (e.g. area of low pressure
        • sea water that's warm (above 26.5oC at least 50m  below surface) so water will evaporate
        • convergence of air in lower atmosphere ( either within ITCZ or along boundary of cold and warm)-causes warm air to rise
        • location at least 5o from Equator, Dont form from 0-5o either side of equator because Coriolis effect isn't strong enough for spin
      • tropical revolving storms form in tropics as water is warm enough
      • occur in Caribbean Sea(called Hurricanes), in the Bay of Bengal(called cyclones), in the China Sea(typhoons) and in Northern Australia
      • tropical revolving storms lose strength when they move over land as supply of warm moist air is cut off
      • initially move westwards due to easterly winds in the tropics... trade winds move cyclones across Atlantic Ocean
        • Move away from Equator because of Coriolis Effect
    • How a Depression develops into a Storm
      • rising air currents must be maintained which requires a constant supply of heat and moisture.
        • as winds sweep over the ocean they increase rate of evapotrasnpiration
          • moist air rises and condenses to form cloud and heavy rainfall, releasing latent heat and further driving the storm
            • once storm has developed it eventually develops an "eye". This area of subsiding air with light winds, clear skys and high temps
              • The descending air increases instability by warming and serves to increase intensity of the storm
                • Associated with high winds are storm surges which are broad waves of water pushed ahead of storm and exacerbated by rise in sea level allowed by intense low pressure beneath hurricane
                  • once hurricanes reach land rapidly decline as lose energy and as move away from tropics as water cools
    • General Impacts
      • Beaches are eroded and coastal habitats are damaged (coral reefs)
      • Environments are polluted by oil, salt water etc
      • Buildings, bridges, roads etc damaged or destroyed and expensive to rebuild
      • Agricultural land is damaged affecting commercial farming
      • people may drown, injured, killed
      • people left homeless
      • electricity supplies cut off
      • shortage of clean water
    • General Responses
      • Evacuation
        • prediction can be used via computers giving people time to evacuate
          • however if wrong waste alot of money and population confidence
        • people can protect homes in time
      • Planning and Education
        • zoning of new homes
        • evacuation routes
        • training of emergency services
      • Building techniques
        • designed to withstand tropical storms e.g. reinforced concrete
        • flood defenses
      • AID
    • impacts usually higher in less developed countries
      • dont have money to respond e.g. emergency teams
      • Buildings are of poor quality
      • health care is poor
      • dependant on agricultural land


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