trends

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  • trends of marriage, divorce, partnerships
    • marriage
      • less people are getting marriage - lowest since the 20s.
        • fear of divorce as 405 end in divorce.
      • more re-marriages than ever before.1/3 of all marriages are re-marriages
        • more people are getting divorced and finding new partners
      • more people are marrying later
        • career opportunities have widened for women so they are focusing on that first.
      • people don't really marry at churches anymore
        • less likely to marry divorcees
      • same sex
        • social policy means they are now treated equally
        • 2004 civil patnership act gave them similar rigts to hetrosexuals
        • 7% of adult population
    • divorce
      • since 60's been a sharp increase
        • 1971 divorce made easier
          • legal separation (a court separates the financial things but they remain married)
      • number doubled by 1972
        • changes in the law (equalising the ground, widening laws and making it cheaper)
      • 40% end in divorce
        • desertion (where one person leaves and one remains legally married)
          • empty shell marriage (continuing to live together  but only married in name)
      • 70% are first time marriages
        • women now can file for a divorce and be stable without the man
    • cohabitation
      • continues to increase
        • stigma gone from sex outside of marriage
        • seen as a trial marriage
        • alternative to marriage
      • 2.9 million couples in Britain
        • increased career opportunities
        • temporary when awaiting a divorce
      • 1 in 8 adults
        • secularisation
      • 69,000 same sex couples doing this
        • young more likely to accept it
        • process towards getting married 75% expected to marry
    • child rearing
      • lone parents
        • 24% of all families
        • 1/4 children living in this type
        • 90% headed by a woman
        • child is twice as likely to be in poverty
      • step families
        • 10% of all families with dependent children
          • from lone-parent new relationships - increase in divorce
        • 86% of these from women's past. 11% from mans past 3% from both
        • may face problems that cause tension
          • more likely to go with mum after divorce
          • lack of clear social norms and how to behave in relationships like this.
    • child bearing
      • nearly half born outside marriage
      • women having children later
        • more career opportunities
      • having fewer children
        • decline in stigma attached
      • many remaining childless
        • increase babies for cohabiting couples
    • ethnic differences
      • black families
        • Black Caribbean and African people have the higher proportion of lone parent households. just over half of families with dependent children were headed by a black person were lone parent families.  this compared with one in nine asian families and just under a quarter for the population as a whole.
        • the high rate of female headed, lone parent black families has sometimes been seen as evidence of family disorganisation that can be traced back or slavery or to high rates of unemployment among black males.
        • under slavery, when couples were sold separately, children stayed with the mother. it is argued that this established a pattern of family life that persists today. it is also argues that black men are less able to provide for their family, resulting in higher rates of desertion or marital breakdown.
      • Asian families
        • Bangladeshi, Pakistani and Indian households tend to be larger than those of other ethnic groups at 4.4 and 4.3 and 3 persons per household respectively, compared to 2.4 for both Black Caribbean and White British households.
        • such households contain three generations, but most are in fact nuclear rather than extended. larger household sizes are partly a result of the younger age profile of British Asians, since higher proportion are in the childbearing age groups compared with the population asa whole.
        • in Asian cultures. however, practical considerations, such as the need for assistance when migrating to Britain are also important. for example, Roger Ballard found that extended family ties provided an important source of support among Asian migrants during the 1950s and 1960s.

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