Trends in the Periodic Table

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  • Trends in the Periodic Table
    • Electro-negativity
      • Electro-negativity is the attractive strength that an atom has for a shared pair of electrons
      • The value of electro-negativity increases as you move along a period
        • This happens due to an increase in nuclear charge, i.e the nucleus is more attracted to the electrons
      • The value of electro-negativity decreases as you move down a group
        • This happens due to an increase in number of electron shells leading to the nucleus having decreased affinity for outer electrons
        • This can also be caused by the screening effect of inner electrons
    • Atomic Radius
      • The atomic radius is the distance between the nucleus of two attracted atoms
      • The atomic radius decreases as you move along a period
        • This happens due to an increase in nuclear charge pulling the electron shells closer to the nulceus
      • The atomic radius increases as you move down a group
        • This happens due to an increase in number of electron shells increasing the size of atoms and so the distance between attracted nuclei
    • Ionisation energy
      • Ionisation energy is the energy required to remove one mole of electron from one mole of atom in it's gaseous state
      • The value of ionisation energy increases as you move along a period
        • This happens due to an increase in nuclear charge meaning that more energy is required to remove an electron
      • The value of ionisation energy decreases as you move down a group
        • This happens due to an increase in number of electron shells moving the electrons firther away from the nucleus decreasing the nucleus' affinity for the electrons making it easier to remove an electron
        • This is also caused by a screening effect of inner electrons decreasing the nucleus' affinity for the electrons, making it easier to remove one

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