Transport systems in Plants and Animals

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  • Transport systems in Plants and Animals
    • Circulatory system
      • transports substances around body
      • consists of: heart, blood vessels & blood
      • Blood pumped to lungs, so CO2 can be exchanges with O2:
        • Oxygenated blood = glucose & oxygen to cells
      • Deoxygenated blood takes waste products (including CO2)
      • Blood passes through heart twice:
        • To carry blood from heart to lungs then back to heart
        • To carry blood from heart to all other organs then back to heart
      • Right side of heart pumps blood low in O2 to lungs
      • Left side of heart pumps blood rich in O2 to all other parts of body
      • Heart's responsible for continuously pumping blood around body, so much of its wall is muscle tissue
      • Four chambers in heart: Left & right atria & left & right ventricles
      • Blood enters heart through atria
      • Atria contract & force blood into ventricles
      • Ventricles contract & force blood out of heart
      • Valves make sure blood flows in right direction
      • Leaking heart valves can be replaced by donor or mechanical valves
      • Artificial  pacemakers can be fitted if there's an irregular heart beat affecting circulation
      • Risk of infection, power supply & size of components surrounding mechanical & electrical heart components
    • Blood Vessels
      • Arteries
        • Take blood from heart to organs
        • Have thick walls made from muscle & elastic fibres
      • Veins
        • Take blood from organs to heart
        • Have thinner walls & valves to prevent backflow
      • Capillaries
        • Allow substances needed by cells to pass out of blood
        • Allow substances produced by cells to pass into blood
        • Are narrow thin-walled blood vessels
    • The Blood
      • Is a tissue & has 4 components
        • Plasma is a straw coloured liquid that transports:
          • CO2 from organs to lungs
          • soluble products of digestion (e.g. glucose) from small intestine to organs
          • Other waste products (e.g. urea) from liver to kidneys
        • White blood cells
          • have a nucleus
          • are suspended in plasma
          • form part of your body's defence system against pathogens
        • Red Blood cells
          • transport oxygen from lungs to organs
          • Don't have a nucleus
          • full of red pigement, haemoglobin
        • Platelets
          • are small fragments of cells
          • don't have a nucleus
          • help blood to clot if you have a wound
          • Artificial blood being developed as alternative to blood transfusions.
            • carries oxygen in situations where a person's red blood cells don't function correctly
      • In lungs: haemoglobin + oxygen = oxyhaemoglobin
      • In other organs: oxyhaemoglobin = haemoblobin + oxygen
    • Transport systems in plants
      • Flowering plants have seperate transport systems
        • Xylem
        • Phloem
      • xylem tissue transplants water & mineral ions from roots to stem & leaves.
        • Transpiration stream
      • Phloem tissue carries dissolved sugars from leaves to the rest of plant, including growing regions & storage organs


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