Transport in plants

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  • Transport in plants
    • Xylem transports water and mineral salts from the roots to leaves
    • Phloem transports the soluble products-sucrose, sugars, organic  molecules, amino acids 
      • source to sink of photosynthesis from leaves to other parts of the plant
    • Xylem is made of vessels and tracheids 
      • Their secondary wall is lignified to waterproof and strengthen and support them to stop them collapsing under tension
    • Xylem vessels form continuous tubes to carry water throughout the plant
    • Mature Xylem vessels are dead and cytoplasm has gone so there is nothing to impede flow 
    • Tracheids have tapered ends that fit together and pits to allow transfer of water between cells 
    • Phloem is made of sieve tubes and companion cells 
      • Sieve tube cells lose most of their organelles and are still alive when mature 
      • Sieve tube cells have perforated sieve/end plates that allow solutes/sugar to pass through 
    • Sugar solution flows in both directions 
      • Cytoplasmic streaming 
    • Companion cells have all the organelles and communicate by plasmodesmata                          
      • theyare responsible for keeping sieve tube cells alive/provide ATP
    • Cohesion-tension, capillarity, adhesion in xylem of water molecules


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