Transport in Animals and Plants

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  • Transport in Animals and Plants
    • Transport System in Animals
      • Open and Closed
        • Insects have an open blood system whereby blood is pumped at relatively low pressure. the blood bathes the tissue directly.
        • Mammels have a closed circulation system whereby the blood flows through a system of vessels
          • single and double circulations
            • double circulations
              • Circulation in mammels
                • The Cardiac cycle
                  • Ventricular systole:       the atria relax and the righ and left ventricles contract togethor forcing blood out of the heart into the pulminary artery and the aorta as the semi lunar valves are opened. the tricuspid and bi-cuspid valves are closed by the rise in ventricular pressure. the pulmonary artery carries deoxgenatedblood to the lungs and the aorta carries oxygenated blood to the various parts of the body
                  • Atrial Systole:     the right and left ventricles contract and blood flows into their ventricles
                  • Diastole:     the ventricles relax and the pressure in the ventricles falls. Blood under high pressure in the arteries causes the semi-lunar valves to shut, preventing blood from going back into the ventricles. blood from the vena cavae and pulmonary veins enters the atria and the cycle starts again
            • Fish have a single circulation. the heart pumps de-oxygenated blood to the gills and then oxygenated blood is carried to the rest of the body
    • Transport system in plants
      • Xylem
        • the xylem is made up of vessels that form system of tubes through which water can travel . as they mature and differentiate,their cellulose walls incorporate lignin, which is a very hard strong substance. As it builds up the cell contents die, leaving an empty space inside.
        • Transport in the Xylem
          • Water uptake by roots:        the soil has a very weak solution of mineral salts and so has a high water potential. the vacuole of the root hair cell contains a strong solution of dissolved substances and has a low water potential. water passes into the root hair cell down a concentration gradient form high to low, by osmosis. there are three ways water can travel
            • Symplast
              • through the cytoplasm and plasmodesmata
            • Appoplast
              • through the cell wall
            • Vacuolar
              • from vacuole to vacuole
            • Key words
              • Root pressure= a force created at the base of the xylem vesselby the influx of water along a water potential gradient
              • Endodermis= a ring of cells surrounding the xylem tissue havimng an impermeable waterproof barrier through their cell walls
              • Cohesion= water molecules tend to stick togethor
              • Transpiration= the evaporation of water from inside the leaves, through the stomata to the atmosphere
              • adhesion= the water molecules stick to the walls of the xylem
              • capillarity= the tendency for water to rise in narrow tubes
      • Phloem
        • phloem is involved in translocation and consists of many types of cells the main one of which are the sieve tubes and companion cells


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