TRANSPORT IN ANIMALS

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  • TRANSPORT IN ANIMALS
    • INTRACELLULAR FLUID
      • tissue fluid = plasma minus plasma proteins
      • capillaries for gas exchange
        • thin
        • permeable
        • LARGE surface area
        • slow blood flow
      • arteriole end of capillary
        • HIGHER hydrostatic pressure
          • tissue fluid out
        • small osmotic pressure
          • tissue fluid out
      • venule end of capilary
        • HIGHER osmotic pressure
          • water in
        • small hydrostatic pressure
          • water in
      • Lymphatic System
        • fluid returns to circulation by thoracic duct
    • REQUIREMENTS
      • medium to carry materials
        • blood
      • closed system of branched network vessels
      • pump & valves to maintain blood flow
      • respiratory pigment for oxygen transport
        • haemoglobin
    • SINGLE & DOUBLE CIRCULATION (CLOSED)
      • Single
        • fish
        • Single Circulation Systems
      • Double
        • human
        • Double Circulatory System
    • OPEN & CLOSED SYSTEMS
      • Open
        • low blood pressure
        • blood into haemocoel space of body cavitiy
        • little control
        • valves & walls contract to push blood
      • Closed
        • blood in vessels
        • high blood pressure due to heart
        • organs in tissue fluid
      • earthworm
        • 5 pseudohearts
    • BLOOD
      • red blood cells
        • haemoglobin pigment (biconcave & no nucleus)
      • plasma
        • transport carbon dioxide, hormones & heat
      • white blood cells
        • granulocytes/phagocytes
          • engulf bacteria (granular cytoplasm & broken nuclei)
        • agranulocytes
          • antibiotics & antitoxins (clear cytoplasm & circular nuclei)
    • STRUCTURE & FUNCTION OF BLOOD VESSELS
      • Artery
        • blood away from heart
        • thick muscle (high pressure) maintains blood flow
        • arteriole vessels to thin walled capillaries (blood collects in venules)
      • Veins
        • low pressure & blood flow due to thinner walls
        • semi-lunar valves prevent backflow
      • Capilaries
        • endothelium permeable to water
        • small diameter & friction reduces blood flow
        • LARGE cross-sectional area reduces blood flow
        • low velocity enhances material exchange
      • Structure & Function of Blood Vessels
    • CONTROL OF HEART
      • myogenic = mucle fibres contract without nerve stimulation
      • Control of the Heart
    • THE CARDIAC CYCLE
      • systole = contraction
      • diastole = relaxation
      • Cardiac Cycle
    • TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN
      • red blood cells pick up oxygen in lungs
        • HIGH particial pressure in lungs, low pressure in tissues
        • haemoblon binds with oxygen (oxyhaemoglobin)
      • dissociate = loose oxygen (Bohr effect to left, less oxygen available)
      • affinity = bind to oxygen (Bohr effect to right, more oxygen available)
      • poorly oxygenated enviro. (uterus, high altitude, muddy)
        • HIGH affinity for oxygen
      • myoglobin
        • HIGH Aaffinity for oxygen
      • exercise
        • HIGH dissociated for oxygen
    • CARBON DIOXIDE TRANSPORT (CHLORIDE SHIFT)
      • Carbon Dioxide Transport (Chloride Shift)

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