Transport In Animals

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  • Transport In Animals
    • Transport Systems
      • Common Features
        • Suitable medium where materials are transported.
          • E.G. Blood
        • Blood vessels
          • Closed systems
        • A Pump
          • E.G. Heart
        • Valves in blood vessels.
          • Prevents backflow.
        • Respiratory pigment
          • E.G.  Haemoglobin
      • Open Transport Systems
        • Transport Medium = Haemolymph
        • Haemolymph is pumped out at low pressure from one, long, dorsal - shaped heart.
        • Haemolymph directly bathes the tissues and the exchange of materials takes place.
        • E.G. Glucose goes into cells and urea comes out.
        • Haemolymph slowly returns to the heart by the abdomen and thorax contracting to push the liquid along.
        • Body cavity fills out with haemolymph .
          • This is haemocoele.
        • Insects do not transport oxygen.
        • E.G. Insects
      • Closed Transport Systems
        • Transport medium = Blood
        • Blood is transported along dorsal and ventral vessels.
          • These are connected to 5 pseudohearts.
        • Blood is transported under high pressure at a rapid speed.
          • Blood transports oxygen to tissues.
        • E.G. Earth Worm
        • Single Closed System
          • E.G. Fish
          • Blood passes through the heart once on one complete circuit of the body.
          • Heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the gills.
            • Oxygenated blood is then carried to the tissues.
              • Deoxygenated blood returns to the heart from the tissues.
        • Double Closed System
          • Blood passes through the heart twice on one complete circuit of the body.
            • Pulmonary Circulation
              • The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
                • Oxygenated blood returns to the left side of the heart.
            • Systemic Circulation
              • The left side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood to the tissues.
              • Deoxygenated blood returns to the right side of the heart.
            • Double is more efficient than single circulation (in fish) because oxygenated blood can be pumped around the body at a higher pressure.
    • Blood Vessels
      • Structures
        • In both veins and arteries the inner layer is called the endothelium.
          • It is one cell thick.
          • Function: provides a smooth lining to reduce friction.
            • Minimises blood flow resistance (enables blood to flow more freely).
        • Middle Layer = Tunica Media
          • Made up of elastic fibres and smooth muscle.
          • Function: creates pressure.
            • Especially in the artery.
        • Outer Layer = Tunica Externa
          • Made up of collagen fibres.
          • Function: prevents over-stretching of the artery and veins.
        • Capillaries
          • Contain only endothelium.
        • Arterioles
          • Adjust diameter to adjust blood supply.
      • Comparisons
        • Veins
          • Thin wall
            • Little muscle
              • Creates low blood pressure
          • Large lumen
            • Large volumes off blood flow back to the heart.
          • Carry blood TO the heart.
          • Semi Lunar valves
            • Prevent the back flow of blood.
        • Arteries
          • Carry blood AWAY from the heart
          • Thick muscular walls
            • Creates high blood pressure
              • Can resist pressure.
          • E.G. Aorta
            • Needs to cope with a lot of pressure because of the heart pumping.
        • Capillaries
          • Thin wall
            • Endothelium is one cell thick.
            • For the exchange of materials from the blood to the cells and vice versa.
          • Small Diameter
            • Short distance for substances to travel.
          • Large cross-sectional area
            • Reduces blood flow.
              • Therefore allows exchange with surrounding tissue fluid.

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