Module 3 - Section 2 - Transport in animals

View mindmap
  • Transport in Animals
    • Circulatory Systems
      • Single Circulatory Systems
        • Blood only passes through the heart once
        • Fish
      • Double Circulatory systems
        • Blood passes through the heart twice
        • Mammals
      • Closed Circulatory Systm
        • Blood is enclosed in blood vessels
        • Vertabrates
      • Open Circulatory Systems
        • Blood flows freely in the body cavity
        • Invertabrates
    • Blood Vessels
      • Arteries
        • Carry blood from heart to the rest of the body
          • Except pulmonary artery which carries deoxygenated blood to lungs
        • Thick Muscular walls contain Elastic Fibres
          • Stretch and recoil to maintain high blood pressure as heart beats
      • Capilleries
        • Smallest blood vessel
        • Where gas exchange occurs
          • Adapted for Diffusion
      • Veins
        • Take blood back to the heart, under low pressure
          • Carry deoxygenated blood to heart
            • Except pulmonary vein which carries oxygenated blood to lungs
        • Contains valves to stop back flow
      • Tissue fluid
        • Fluid that surrounds cells in tissues. Made from what leaves blood plasma.
        • Substances move out of capillaries into tissue fluid via Pressure filtration.
          • Hydrostatic pressure in capillaries is grater than tissue fluid forcing it out, reducing hydrostatic pressure in the veins.
            • Water leaving, reduces water potential and conc of plasma proteins increase. Generates Oncotic pressure
              • In venules high Oncotic pressure and low water potential, causing some water to diffuse back in via osmosis.
        • Lymph Vessels
          • Excess fluid doesn't re enter vein, eventually returns to blood via Lymphatic System.
            • Excess fluid is passed over lymph vessels
              • Valves in lymph vessel stop lymph (excess fluid) going backwards.
                • This moves towards lymph vessel in the heart.
    • Heart
      • Cardiac Cycle
        • Ongoing sequence of contraction and relaxation of the atria and ventricles that keeps blood continuously circulate the body.
        • 1.Ventricles relax. Atria contract-Decrease vol in chambers and increase pressure in chambers, pushing blood into ventricles.
          • 2.Atria relax. Ventricles contract increasing pressure, which becomes higher than ventricles. Forcing AV valves to close and SL valves to open, forcing blood into arteries.
            • 3.Ventricles and Aorta relax. High pressure in pulmonary artery and aorta closes SL valve Blood returns to heart and aorta fills again due to higher pressure in Vena Cava. This repeats the cycle.
      • Heartbeat
        • Sino-Atrial Node(SAN) sets rhythm by sending regular electrical waves over atrial walls.
          • Non-conducting collagen tissue transfer activity to AVN.
            • AVN pases waves over Bundle-Of-His with delay of emptying atria.
        • Myogenic
        • Calculating Heart rate
          • heart rate(bpm) = 60/time taken for one heartbeat
    • Haemoglobin
      • Haemoglobin and Oxyhaemoglobin
        • Haemoglobin + Oxygen = Oxyhaemoglobin
          • Through Loading and unloading
      • Haemoglobin's Affinity For Oxygen
        • High
          • From a high partial pressure of oxygen to a low partial pressure for oxygen.
      • Dissociation Curves
        • Shows how saturated haemoglobin is with oxygen
        • 'S' Shaped as more saturated the harder it is for more oxygen to join.
      • Fetal Haemoglobin
        • Has higher affinity for oxygen, as need higher than others blood to get oxygen into placenta to survive.
      • Bohr Effect
        • CO2 reacts with water in blood forming carbonic acid.
          • Catalysed by carbonic anhydrase
          • Carbonic acid dissociates. H+ ions causes oxyhaemoglobin to unload and to load H+, HCO3- transported in blood
            • To compensate loss chloride shift occurs
            • Forms haemoglobnic acid
        • Rest of CO2 bind to haemoglobin carries to lungs

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Biological molecules resources »