Transport In and Out of Cells

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  • Created by: Jxss.lx
  • Created on: 09-06-18 19:06
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  • Transport In and Out of Cells
    • Diffusion
      • Across cell membranes
      • Net movement of particles
        • From higher concentration to lower concentration
          • Until evenly spread out
      • Particles move randomly and spread out
      • Examples
        • Oxygen and carbon dioxide
          • Gas exchange in lungs, gills and plant leaves
        • Urea
          • Diffuses from cells into blood plasma
            • Excretion by kidney
        • Digested food molecules
          • From small intestine into blood
      • Factors affecting rate
        • Concentration gradient
        • Surface area of membranes
          • Single-celled organism
            • Large surface area to volume ratio
              • Allows enough molecules to diffuse to meet needs of organism
          • Multi-cellular organisms
            • Smaller surface area to volume ratio
              • Surfaces and organ systems specialised
                • Large surface area
                • Thin surface
                  • Short distance for molecules to diffuse
                • Kept moist
                  • Dissolve quicker
                • Animals
                  • Rich blood supply
                    • Maintains concentration gradient
                  • Ventilation occurs
                    • Speeds up gaseous exchange
        • Temperature
    • Osmosis
      • Water
        • Across cell membrane
      • Diffusion of water
        • From dilute solution to concentrated solution
          • Through partially permeable membrane
    • Active Transport
      • Moves substances against concentration gradient
        • Area of lower concentration to higher concentration
      • Requires energy
        • From respiration
      • Allows
        • Mineral ions to be absorbed into plant root hairs
          • From very dilute solutions in soil
        • Sugar molecules from gut to blood

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