Transmigration - Indonesia

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  • Transmigration- Indonesia
    • Transmigration  -  The movement of people from the overcrowded areas of a country to more rural areas in order to reduce the pressure of over population in the cities
    • What was the policy ?
      • Why was it needed?
        • Outer areas have a large portion of Indonesia's natural resources
        • the population is less dense
        • higher rural incomes on average (compared to Java)
      • 'Transmigration policy' - 1960's
      • Reducing population growth
      • move people from over populated places (e.g. Java) to less densely populated (Sumatra)
      • $560 million
    • Was is successful ?
      • the population is still not evenly distributed
      • not all people escaped poverty
        • lacking farming skills
        • the land was too poor in the new area
      • 3 million became homeless and were unable to return to their original homes as the area was redeveloped
      • reduced the impacts on population growth in Java however, Indonesia is still not sustainable
      • blamed for damaging world rare rain forests and ecosystems
        • 1960- 82% of the country was covered with rainforests
          • 1982- 68% of the country was covered with rainforests
    • Impacts
      • Positive
        • more/ cheaper schools
        • higher income
        • education - especially for girls
        • new culture
      • Negative
        • cost : $7000 per family
          • increased the country's dept
        • increased deforestation
        • cultural and religious clashes
          • conflict
        • land taken from indigenous people and given to new settlers

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