WATER -National and International conflict, Tanzania (River Ruaha) and The Nile

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  • National and international conflict - Tanzania and The Nile
    • RUNS THROUGH 11 COUNTRIES (6,700km)
      • 300 mil people live within the Nile Basin (expected to double by 2030).
    • Aswan High Dam, Egypt
      • built to prevent flooding in the summer and also increase water storage for irrigation and hydro-electricity.
      • reduction of silt downstream means increased erosion of the nile delta.
    • The Nile Basin Initiative
      • promotes peace.
      • discuss how to jointly take care and share the Nile water.
      • The World Bank became involved to establish a common vision.
      • in 2010, ETHIOPIA, RWANDA, TANZANIA, and UGANDA signed a New Water Treaty stating that all Riparian Countries should have equal rights to use the nile water.
    • Causes of conflict
      • Upstream countries build in the Nile causing less flow downstream. EGYPT rely heavily with a population of 85 million people.
      • Ethiopia built a 6000 MW dam. - reduces flow of the Blue Nile.
    • Unfair Distribution
      • ETHIOPIA - major production but low capture. EGYPT + SUDAN - high capture but low internal renewable resources.
    • Changes in distribution
      • 1929 - 48mil cubic metres to EGYPT. 4 bil cubic metres to SUDAN. (14% going to other 9 countries).
      • 1959 - 55.5 bil cubic metres to EGYPT. 18.5 bil cubic metres to SUDAN - used for irrigation for the GEZIRA SCHEME.
    • RWANDA and ETHIOPIA need high supplies for irrigation, HEP and industrial processing to reduce poverty.
      • Semi-Arid area in Tanzanian Highlands.
        • may be WATER SCARCE by 2025.
      • Provides water for rice growth and HEP, and is important for wildlife and tourism (the Wetland).
      • WWF - dry-season irrigation lead to loss of water from the river and DAMAGED the wetland.
        • ALSO, too much water used for HEP so not enough was left for the domestic users. (SUPPLIES SWITCHED OFF).
      • Signed treaty stating all riparian countries have equal access to nile water.
      • POPULATION - 52 million. GDP - $48 billion
      • plans for new pipeline to lake Victoria for drinking water.


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