Trait Theory

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  • Trait Personality
    • key characteristics
      • states that people are born with established personality characteristics
      • all behaviour is innate and genetically programmed
      • behaviour is stable, enduring and consistent in all situations
    • influence on performance
      • an individuals innate personality characteristics may have a positive or negative effect on performance
      • an extroverted personality is more likely to succeed in team sports; whereas high levels of introversion may inhibit performance in team sports
    • influence on participation
      • personality characteristics could have a positive or negative impact on participation
      • someone with high levels of aggression is likely to enjoy contact sports like boxing and rugby, which would increase participation
    • Evaluation of trait theory
      • + allows for easy and objective measurements through questionnaires (eysenks personality questionnaire)
      • - states that all behaviour is predictable in all situations, in reality this is not the case
      • - doesn't take into account the fact people change their behaviour in response to the environment, as well as the fact the environment influences the shaping of behaviour
    • Personality types
      • Eysenck identified 4 primary characteristics - stable, neurotic, introvert, extrovert
      • extrovert - affiliate well to others, out going and sociable, aroused more slowly than introvert, low sensitivity RAS
      • introvert - shy and reserved, aroused more quickly than extrovert, high sensitivity of RAS
      • neurotic - mood swings, high levels of stress, unpredictable
      • stable - predictable emotions in appropriate situations, low stress
    • Narrow band theory
      • type A - competitive, works fast, strong desire to succeed, likes control, prone to stress
      • type B - not competitive, works slowly, lacks the desire to succeed, doesn't like control, less likely to be stressed

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