Modes OF transport

  • Created by: maria
  • Created on: 04-03-20 12:02
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  • Modes Of Transport
    • Land
      • Road
        • In 1952 Britain had about 2 mill cars whereas 36.7 mill were registered in 2018
        • Car growth has increased due to a growing population, economic prosperity, the rise of women in work, the flexibility of this transport mode as well as the image of cars as a status symbol.
        • Congestion especially in inner cities, has become a major issue, resulting in economic, social and environmental problems
        • Congestion
          • COST- £200 billion in UK
          • AIR POLLUTION- 24% of GHG emissions
          • AESTHETICS- stimulus to encourage Greenfield development
          • SAFETY- residential areas to avoid traffic
          • NOISE- heavy traffic. 'canyon effect'
          • BARRIERS TO EMERGENCY SERVICES-  difficult to navigate through.
          • HEALTH- increased respiratory & cardio-vascular health
          • LOSS OF GREENFIELD LAND- ring roads 188km M25 in London on green belt
      • Rail
        • Trains which carry people as well as freight, are more sustainable than cars as they move large volumes of people on high speed tracks
        • Many train services worldwide are powered by electricity rather than diesel, with a greater efficiency and a lower environmental impact
        • The development of rail in the UK was associated with industrialisation in the 1800s. Londons underground railway, 'the tube' was completed in 1863
        • Problems
          • DEMAND- passenger no.
          • COST OF EXPANSION- 10 years at a cost of £15 billion
          • PRIVATISATION- 1994-97
          • ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES- HS2 high speed railway expansion
        • High speed railway
          • A number of countries have progressed further in the uk with the development of high speed rail. In 2017 China launched the worlds fastest bullet train between Beijing and Shanghai, 1250km journey in less than 5 hours
          • In Japan, the 'Shinkasen' bullet train system connects all 4 islands to reduce demand for internal flights
    • Sea
      • Before the advent of modern road systems, the sea was a highway for moving people and goods. Although vessels have changed, sea transport still remains important for the movement of cargo, and in some cases people.
      • Containerisation has transformed the movement of freight in todays globalised world. About 90% of all freight is now containerised. (excudes oil and mineral ore)
      • Cruising has increased in popularity worldwide with 25.8 mill passengers in 2019. Ferries are also popular for sea crossing.
    • Air
      • First flight was taken by the Wright brothers in 1903
      • Flying is a luxury mainly enjoyed by the middle to high income groups as 95% of the worlds population has never flown
      • Many countries have domestic or internal fights e.g between Dublin and Kerry
      • The advent of budget airlines has accelerated the mass tourism industry. Many tourist destinations have heavily depended on flights e.g Mediterranean destinations
      • Air travel is considered to be unsustainable. Apart from noise pollution, emissions incude nitrogen dioxide, carbon dioxide and greenhouse gasses, which contribute to Global Warming and ozone depletion


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