Trade Unions

  • Created by: AbigailCC
  • Created on: 21-05-19 03:22
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  • Trade Unions and Labour rights 1865-1992
    • Government and Presidential policy
      • National Industry Recovery Act (NIRA) 1933- gave workers the right to organise unions and collective bargaining
      • National Labour Relations Act ( NLRA) / Wagner Act 1935 - improve the conditions of workers
      • National Labour Relations Board (NLRB) 1935
      • Fair Labour Standards Act 1939- set a minimum wage
      • Equal Pay Act 1963- gave men and women " equal pay"
      • Untitled
      • Occupational Safety and Health Act 1970
    • Legal cases
      • Lochner v. New York 1905- limits on work hours were forbidden
      • Congress v. Kansas 1905- minimum wage laws violated the due process cause
      • Schechter v. US 1935- declared that the NIRA was unconstitutional
    • Economic factors
      • WW2 saw wages increase up to 70%
      • Henry Ford doubled the daily wage for his employees to $5
      • 1950s: average income was 35% than it was in 1940s
      • 1950s: 75% of workers owned cars
      • High levels of unemployment ( rising from 3% in 1929 to 25% by 1933)
      • Post WW2: 31% of the workforce was dropped by 1960
    • Role of pressure groups
      • Knights of Labour (KOL) 1880s- pressed for an 8 hour day- 700,000 members by 1886 but declined due to the Haymarket affair in 1886
      • American Federation of Labour ( AFL) 1886- wanted unions to be recognized- bur employers didn't accept unions
      • Industrial Workers of the World ( Wobblies) 1905- fought for better conditions but they were " associated with communism
      • Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel workers ( AAISWA)- Homestead strike 1892
      • American Railway Union- Pullman Strike 1894- unsuccessful
      • PACTO stike- 1981
    • Solidarity and unity of groups
      • Skilled and unskilled workers- in the early years of the period, unions were more likely to represent skilled workers (CIO break away)
      • Ethnic Divisions: AAs and immigrants from Europe and Asia would work for cheaper wages ( Scab labour)
      • Gender division : Women didn't want to join unions as there wasn't many that represented their interest
    • Impact of individuals
      • Henry Ford exerted a tight control over his workforce- introduce welfare capitalism but didnt recognise unions till 1941
      • Philip Randolph led the campaign of Brotherhood of sleeping porters and were recognised in 1934 by Roosevelts Railway Labor Act
    • OPPOSITION :Taft- Hartley Act 1947: limited the power of unions

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