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  • Tourism 2
    • Mass tourism
      • Advantages
        • Tourism brings jobs. People who once relied on subsistence agriculture or day labouring gain regular work with more reliable wage.
        • New infrastructure benefits locals but could bring pollution and over development.
        • Construction jobs go to locals, but are temporary.
        • New leisure facilities open to locals.
      • Disadvantages
        • Activity seasonal out of work for rest of year.
        • Industry dominated by large travel companies.
        • Lower and middle income customers don't appeal to wealthier
        • Few locals paid well, higher level jobs taken by company employees.
        • Investing companies based in countries at further stages of development. Mass uncommon at lower stages of development. Profits don't benefit host countries.
        • New building developments need land - farmers sell. Local food production decreased.
        • Tourists narrow minded and prefer familiar food - don't try local.
        • Local people can't afford new facilities.
    • Butler Tourist Resort Life Cycle Model
      • 1. Exploration: Small numbers of visitors are attracted by something particular such as good beaches or attractive landscape, historical or cultural features. Local people have not yet developed many tourist services.
      • 2. Involvement: Local population sees opportunities that tourism presents and starts to provide accomodation,food, transport, guides and other services for the visitors.
      • 3. Development: Large companies build hotels and leisure complexes and advertise package holidays. Number of tourists rise dramatically. Job opportunities created for the locals, but advantages and disadvantages are present.
      • 4. Consolidation:Tourism now major part of the economy but perhaps at expense of other types of development. Numbers of visitors are steady making employment more secure. However at some hotels and other facilities are becoming older and unattractive so the type of customers goes downmarket. Rowdiness becomes a problem.
      • 5. Stagnation: Resort unfashionable and numbers of visitors starts to decline. Businesses change hands and often fail.
        • 6. Decline or rejuvenation: Visitors prefer other resorts. Day trippers and weekenders become the main source of income. Rejuvenation attempts are made to modernize and attract different people to enjoy new activities.
      • Edinbrugh is developing castle sites daily (or regularly)
      • Blackpool case study
        • Lancashire coast, NW England
          • 1800 sea bathing popular, 1846 railway built, cutting costs and time, working class, 1868 central pier, 1870s, workers given annual hols, 1894 tower opened, 1904 fairground, interwar leading coastal resorts, law giving workers hol pay, 1960 stagnates, package hols, air transport, better climate, run down areas, stag and hen parties, £300 mil rejuvenation projects
            • private investment and local authority grants to upgrade htels, turn outdoor pools into indoor leisure centures
              • Increase car parking provision. Many smaller failing hotels were converted into self catering holiday flats. Decline continued, more slowly. Blackpool attractions made it attractive-tower, circus and ballroom, town upgraded zoo and sealife centre built, Blackpool illuminations from 1879 upgraded. Quicker to fight comp from package hols, lost family business, rely on day trippers and stag and hen business - not pop with residents or good for town's image. Try to be home of first supercasino, but lost, some 20000 jobs and 2 bil of investment, aiming for regneration, millions imp town for casino bid, so less run down. New dept store in 2008.
              • Problems - overcrowding, unemployment, keeping beach and resort clean, coping with coastal erosion, land air and water pollution, competition from other resorts, unreliability of weather
                • Solving - investment by local council in beach and street cleaning equipment, provision of new facilities to attract visitors, extending season by offering top quality accomodation for conferences and blackpool illuminations in autumn, new parking facilities, park and ride, gaining EU blue flag for having good bathing water quality, reducing amount of sand extraction along coast of blackpool


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