Demography

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: chinwe
  • Created on: 18-04-15 11:00
View mindmap
  • Topic 4- Demography
    • Births
      • The total fertility rate
        • TFR is the average number of children women have during their fertile years
        • Factors affecting the total fertility rate are; 1) The proportion of women who are of childbearing age(15-44)  2) How fertile the women is- that is how many children they have
        • The UK TFR has risen since 2001
        • The changes in fertility rates and birth rates reflect that:
          • - Women are remaining childless than in the past
          • - Women are postponing having children. The average age for giving birth is now 29.6
      • Reasons for the decline in the birth rate
        • 1) Changes in the position of women
          • - Legal equality with men including the right to vote.
          • - Increased education opportunities. Girls do better than boys
          • - More women in paid employment
          • - Easier access to divorce.
          • - Changes in attitudes to family life and women's roles
          • Access to abortion and reliable contraception
        • 2) Decline in the infant mortality rate
          • Infant mortality rate (IMR) measures the number of infants who die before their first birthday, per thousand babies born alive, per year
          • Sociologists argue that a fall in the MRI leads to a fall in the birth rate
          • During the first half of the 20th century, the UK's MRI began to fall. This was due to several reasons;
            • - Improved housing and better sanitation
            • - Better nutrition, including the mothers
            • - Better knowledge of hygiene, child care and welfare, often spread through women magazines
            • - A fall in the number of married women working
            • - Improved services for women and children, such as postnatal clinics
        • 3) Children have become an economic liability
          • Since the late 19th century children have become an economic liability:
            • - Laws; Banning child labour, introducing compulsory schooling and raising the school leaving age, meaning that children remain economically dependent on their parents for longer
            • - Changing norms about what children have the right to expect from their parents in material terms
        • 4) Child centerdness
          • Increasing child centredness in the family and society means that childhood is now socially constructed as a uniquely important period.
            • This has encouraged a shift from 'quality' to 'quantity'
              • Parents now have fewer children and lavish more attention and resources on these few
      • Effects of changes in fertility
        • The family
          • Smaller families means that women are more likely to go out to work
            • thus creating the dual earner couple
        • The dependency ratio
          • The relationship between the size of the working population and the non-working population.
          • children make up a large part of the dependency population
            • A fall the number of children reduces the 'burden of dependency' on the working population
        • Public services and policies
          • Lower birth rates ma mean that fewer services are needed
            • E.g fewer schools, maternity and child health services
    • Deaths
      • Reasons for the decline in death rate
        • There are several reasons for the decline in death rate during the 20th century:
          • Improved nutrition
            • Thomas Mckeown(1972)  argues that the improved nutrition accounted for up to half the reduction in death rates
              • Better nutrition increased resistance to infection and increased the survival chances of those who were infected
          • Medical improvements
            • After the 1950s improved medical knowledge helped reduce death rates
              • Advances included the introduction of antibiotics widespread immunisation, blood transfusion, higher standards of midwifery and maternity services
          • Public heath measures and environmental improvements
            • In the 20th century, more effective local and central government led to a range of improvements in public health and he quality of the environment
              • Improvements included; improvements in housing, purer drinking water, the pasteurisation of milk, and improved sewage disposal methods
            • The clean air act reduced air pollution, such as smog in 1952
          • Other social changes
            • Smaller families decreased the rate of transmission of infection
            • Greater public knowledge of the causes of illness
            • Higher incomes, allowing for a healthier lfestyle
      • Life expectancy
        • As death rates have fallen, so has life expectancy
          • Males born in England 1900 were expected to live to 50 years
            • Males born in England 2003-5 can expect to live to 76.9 years
        • One reason for lower life expectancy in 1900 is the fact that so many children did not survive beyond the early years of life.
        • Class gender and regional differences
          • Those living in the North have a lower life expectancy than those living in the South
          • Working-class men in unskilled jobs are nearly 3 times likely to die before the age of 65, compared to men who are in managerial and professional jobs
          • Women generally live longer than men
      • The ageing population
        • The average age of the UK population is rising
          • In 1971 it was 34.1 years. By 2031, it is projected to reach 42.6 yearas
          • The ageing of the population is due to several factors;
            • - Increasing life expectancy- people are living longer into old age.
            • Decline in infant mortality, so that now hardly anyone dies early in life
            • Decline in fertility- fewer young people are being produced in relation to the number of older people in the population
      • Effects of an ageing population
        • Public services
          • Older people consume a larger proportion of services such as health and social care than other age groups.
        • The dependency ratio
        • One-person pensioner households
        • The social construction of ageing as a 'problem'
          • The age statuses are being socially constructed
        • Policy implications

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Families and households resources »