Topic 2

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  • Created by: Alice
  • Created on: 08-05-13 08:50
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  • Topic 2
    • Animals
      • Courtship Behaviours -e.g male birds stut around showing colourful feathers to impress females
        • Mating
          • Lions-has serveal mating partners over a lifetime
          • Sea-Lions,behave in the same way as lions
          • Monogamous - have one mating partner over a lifetime. E.g swans, coyotes.
      • Parental Care
        • Mammals
          • Pregnancy -female carries her young in hrt unterus which provides the offspring with protection
          • Breast feeding- provides them with nutrients
          • General protection- when parents keeps an eye on their young.The young gradually copies their parents behaviours
        • Birds
          • Incubation- parents sit on eggs which keeps them warm
          • Feeding- leave chicks in nests to go looking for food
          • General protection - building a nest to find eggs from predators
        • Parental care has evolved which means the chances of genes being past down is increased
      • Instintive and Learned Behaviour
        • Instinct: inherited from parents and not affected by the enviorment
        • Learned Behaviours
          • Operant conditioning -animal learns to do something by being awarded e.g blind dogs
          • Classical Conditioning- animal will learn without trying.
            • Ivan Pavlov- He conditioned a dog to sailvate when it hears a bell
      • Habituation -simplest type of learning where a animal stops responding to a stimulus, (cat ignores her bell on her collar)
      • Imprinting - where animals copy their parents. E.g when young birds imprint their parents by following them
      • Choice chamber- a box separated into different areas with different enviorments. A investingation is carried to see what envioment woodlice choose
      • Animal communication
        • Uses for communication: Warn each other of danger. Attracting a mate. Help hunting.
        • Ways of communicating: Making sounds. Producing chemicals. Signals or displays. Facial expressions or body language
          • Chemicals- release them to attract a mate, scare off competitors or mark out territory
          • Signals or display- used to attract a mate or present a treat.
        • Body language- most mammals communiate through body posture
        • Facial expressions- ways species commuicate to their own species.

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