Topic 2 AQA history - Peacemaking 1918-1919 and the league of nations

An overview of topic 2 in the paper 1 AQA history. Shows the aims, failures and successes of the League of Nations and also looks at the Treaty of Versailles.

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Topic 2 - Peacemaking 1918-1919 and the League of Nations
    • Treaty of Versailles
      • Paris Peace conference
        • What the powers wanted
          • David Lloyd George - Wanted a just punishment and agreed with Woodrow Wilson, but public wanted revenge
          • Georges Clemenceau -  Wanted to punish Germany severely because France suffered a lot in the war. Wanted to cripple Germany so they couldn't attack them again.
          • Woodrow Wilson: 14 points, be fair to Germany, and he wanted to make 'fair peace'
        • What they got.
          • Georges Clemenceau liked the reparation, military restrictions and demilitarised Rhineland (it created a buffer zone for them) and they also got Alsace Lorraine back
            • However he wanted the treaty to be harsher
          • David Lloyd George liked the fact Britain gained some German colonies, and Germany's navy was reduced thus helping Britain to 'rule the seas'
            • However he thought the treaty was too harsh on Germany and would ruin them, he also thought it would cause another war in 25 years
          • Woodrow Wilson liked the League of nations (was his idea) and also liked the self determination for the peoples of Eastern Europe.
            • But some of his 14 points didn't get into the treaty, and when he returned home the senate refused to join the league and sign the treaty (they didn't want to become involved in European affairs)
      • Terms of the treaty (TRAWL)
        • Reparations to be paid by Germany (£6,600 million)
        • Territorial Losses for Germany (CAPS)
          • Colonies (all of them)
          • Alsace-Lorraine was given back to France
          • Polish Corridor given to Poland
          • Saar given to France for 15 years
        • Armed forces are reduced for Germany
        • War Guilt Clause - clause 231 says Germany accept responsibility for the war
        • League of Nations to be set up
      • What did Germany think?
        • They hated the Treaty.
        • They thought it was a Diktat (an imposed treaty) and they had no say in it.
        • They thought it was extremely unfair and left them destroyed
        • Clause 231 hurt Germanys pride, they said they weren't the only ones to blame
        • The German people living in land Germany had lost were unhappy as they were forced to live in a different country.
          • Whereas other countries were given 'self determination'
        • Reparations were harsh - they said that France and Britain were trying to 'starve their children'
    • League of  Nations
      • Membership
        • Main members were Britain, France, Italy and Japan
        • Had 42 members initially and then 60 by the 1930s
        • The USA didn't join and so the league lacked power
        • Germany and other defeated countries couldn't join
          • So it was seen as a 'club for the victorious'
        • USSR not allowed to join because they were communist
      • Organisation
        • Assembly - Meets once a year and decisions must be unanimous
        • Council - Made up of the leading members and they met 4-5 times a year
        • Agencies
          • Court of international Justice (to settle small disputes)
          • Health Committee (to improve world health)
          • International Labour organisation (to get fair wages)
          • Slavery Committee (to end slavery)
          • Refugee Committee ~(returns people home after wars/disasters)
        • Secretariat - supposed to organise the league.
      • Successes
        • It settled some land disputes
        • Worked to prevent leprosy and malaria
        • Saved Austria and Hungary from economic collapse by sending over experts
        • Freed slaves, helped refugees and helped half a million WW1 POW to get home
        • Enforced the T of V because Britain and France invaded Germany to get them to pay reparations
        • Had a lot of support in the early days - people wanted peace
        • The 60 members in the 30s made it look strong
      • Failures (WAS DUMB)
        • Weak (no army and sanctions didn't work)
        • America didn't join so it lacked their power
        • Structure - messy and decisions were slow as they had to be unanimous
        • Depression - countries were more interested in helping themselves than world peace
        • Unsuccessful- the league failed to do anything so the less people trusted and respected it
        • Members - Italy and Japan, two leading members defied the league.
        • Big Bullies! - The league did not have the power to stand up to powerful nations such as Japan and Italy (Abyssinia and Manchuria)
          • Abyssinia - The league did nothing. The sanctions imposed were unsuccessful and the Hoare-Laval pact made the league look very bad
          • Manchuria - The league did nothing as the report they produced took over a year and Japan ignored the verdict anyway and later left the league
      • Aims
        • Enforce the T of V
        • Improve lives and jobs
        • enforce disarmarment
        • prevent war
      • What the league did - International agreements
        • Dawes Plan
          • Designed by America to prevent conflict
          • Money sent to Germany so they could pay reparations
          • This helped the league enforce the Treaty of Versailles
        • Locarno Treaties
          • Germany agreed to borders set out by the T of V
          • Germany also agreed to the disarmament of the Rhineland
          • This helped the league enforce the treaty of Versailles and disarmament
        • Kellogg - Briand Pact
          • Signed in '28 by 63 countries
          • They agreed to try an stop future conflict through peaceful means
          • This helped the league keep peace and stop future wars

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Causes and effects of WW1 resources »