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  • Created by: chinwe
  • Created on: 14-04-15 19:39
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  • Topic 2- Class differences in achievement (2) Internal Factors
    • Labelling
      • Labelling in secondary schools
        • Howard Becker(1971) carried out a study of labelling- Based on interviews with 60 Chicago high school teachers, he found that they judged pupils according to how closely they fit the image of the 'ideal pupil'.
      • Labelling in primary schools
        • Ray rist's(1970) did a study of an American kindergartens show
          • He found that the teacher used information about the childrens home background and appearance to place them into separate groups
            • Those who were fast learners, who she labelled the 'Tigers' , tended to be middle-class and had a neat appearance.
              • She seated these pupils nearest to her and gave them greatest  encouragement
            • The other groups who she labelled the 'cardinals' and 'clowns' were seated furthest away. These groups were more likely to be working-class
      • High and low status knowledge
        • Nell Keddie(1971) found both pupils and knowledge can be labeeled as high or low status
          • The comprehensive classes observed were streamed by ability
          • Keddie found that when teachers taught the 'A stream'  they gave them abstract theoretical, high status knowledge
            • The less able 'C stream'pupils were given descriptive, commonsense, low status knowledge
    • The self fulfilling prophecy
      • A self fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that comes true simply by virtue of it having been made
        • STEP 1-  The teacher labels the pupil.      STEP 2- The teacher acts accordingly   STEP 3- The pupil internalises the teachers expectations
      • Teachers expectations
        • Rosenthal and Jacobson(1968)
      • Streaming and the self-fulfilling prophecy
    • Pupil subcultures
      • A pupil culture is a group of pupils who share similar values and behaviour patterns
        • Pupil subculture often emerge as a response to the way pupils have been labelled, and as a reaction to streaming
      • The Pro-school subculture
      • Anti-school subculture
      • Abolishing streaming
      • The variety of pupil responses
      • The limitation of labelling theory
    • Marketisation


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