Topic 7

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  • Topic 7
    • Gene Sequencing
      • Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR
        • Heat: to break hydrogen bonds Cool: so primers can bind, heat so DNA polymerase bind
        • Forensics, paternity testing, genetic conditions
    • Transcription Factors
      • Proteins which bind to DNA and change the rate at which mRNA is produced
        • Promoter: a region next to a gene
        • Enhancer: a region elsewhere on a gene
    • RNA splicing
      • PreMrna all genes and introns begin to be removed producing mature mRNA
    • Epigenetic modification
      • nc RNA (non-coding)
        • never gets turned into a protein preventing gene expression
      • HIstone Modificattion
        • Proteins act as support for DNA molecules
      • DNA Methylation
        • adding a methyl group as DNA becomes less accessible to RNA polymerase, preventing transcription from occurring
      • Epigenetic Importance
        • helps with dementia, where expressions of genes can be controlled in studies
    • Stem Cells
      • Toitiotent
        • early embryo's can turn into any type of cell
      • Pluripotent
        • later embryo cells, can turn into almost any cell, except  extra embryonic
        • Induced Pluripotent Stem cells (iPS)
      • Multipotent
        • Adult stem cells, can produce a limiter number of cell types related to their place in the body
    • Recombinant DNA
      • Made
        • 1- isolation of gene (restriction endonuclease2- inserting gene into vector (stick ends same REN) DNA ligase joins them together
          • Virus, Gene Gun
      • Identifying
        • look for antibiotic resistance, by replica plating
    • Genetic Modification
      • Crops
        • soya beans
      • Food Debate
        • ingesting foreign DNA; releasing marker gene for antibiotic resistance into the world. GM strains can be infertile

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