Topic 3

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  • Topic 3
    • Validation of Scientific Ideas
      • -Scientific Journals         -Peer Reviews         -Conferences
        • Is the paper valid, significant and original
    • Evolution
      • Natural Selection- Population shows genetic diversity due to a variety of alleles caused by mutations
        • Environmental conditions change
          • Natural Selection reduces reproduction of some individuals
            • Some individuals pass on more alleles to nest generation
              • Over generations the frequency of these alleles increases
      • Niche-the role of the organisms in the community
      • Adaptation
        • Anatomical-Physical/structure
          • Behavioral- what the organism does
            • Physical-Internal Functioning
    • Speciation
      • Allopatric Speciation- Physical/geographical isolation
        • Sympatric Speciation- reproductive isolation
      • Isolation:
        • Geographical-Physical Barrier
          • Habitat-occupy different habitats in same area but don't meet to breed
            • Seasonal/temporal-same area but active for reproduction @different times
              • Mechanical-reproductive organs no longer fit togetehr
                • Behavioral-no response to reproductive display's
                  • Gametic-male and female gametes from different populations incompatible with each other
    • Biodiversity
      • Equation
        • N=total of all species
          • n= total no of each individual species
      • Great vairety of alleles within a gene pool, within a species and area
    • Ex-Situ Conservation
      • Zoo's
        • Education; Scientific Research, Captive Breeding
          • Maintain diversity-No repeated breeding, selective partners, keep a database of breeding history
      • Seed Banks
        • Seed's collected from a no of individuals, x'rayed to see embryo, dried, stored @ cold temperatures, periodic germination tests to check viability
    • In-Situ Conservation
      • Conserve in natural habitats
        • National parks; wildlife reserves;world biosphere reserves; SSSI
        • Monitored; protected from human activity; a suitable size; not isolated from other reserves
    • Molecular Phylogeny
      • Gel-Electrophoresis: DNA fragments are loaded into agrose gel. DNA cut into fragments and treated to glow in UV light, creating an electophotogram.
        • Sorted by charge and mass
    • Classificaion
      • Species
        • Genus
          • Family
            • Order
              • Class
                • Phylum
                  • Kingdom
                    • Domain
          • Binomial Name
        • Binomial Name

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