Topic 2: Earth Material

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  • Topic 2: Earth Material
    • 1.5: Rocks
      • Igneous rocks, like granite, are formed from the solidification of magma/lava.
        • They are formed from crystals, and the size of these crystals depends on the rate of cooling.
          • The faster it cools, the smaller the crystals. The slower is cools, the larger the crystals.
      • Sedimentary rocks are formed by the compaction of layers of sediment over a very long period of time.
        • Some examples of sedimentary rock are chalk and limestone.
        • Sedimentary rocks can contain fossils, and are susceptible to erosion.
      • Metamorphic rock are formed by the action of heat and pressure on existing rock.
        • Marble is an example of metamorphic rock.
      • Limestone, chalk and marble all exist in the Earth's crust. They are also all natural forms of Calcium carbonate.
    • 1.6: Limestone
      • Limestone is an important material and there is a commercial need for it.
        • Quarries are in the countryside, where jobs may be difficult to find. Limestone is valuable and can be exported to other countries, helping the UK's economy.
        • Quarries are common in attractive places and are dusty and noisy. They may affect the quality of life for local people and damage the tourist industry.
          • Heavy lorries cause extra traffic, noise and pollution. Land taken up by quarries can not be used for farming and destroy the original landscape.
      • Calcium Carbonate is quarried on a large scale.
        • 57% Construction, 22% making concrete and cement, 15% making glass, 5% making steel and iron alloys.
      • When it is heated strongly, calcium carbonate decomposes to form calcium oxide and carbon dioxide.
        • Calcium carbonate --> calcium oxide + carbon dioxide
        • Thermal decomposition of limestone is used in the manufacture of cement and glass.
    • 1.9: Limestone Cycle
      • A vigorous reaction happens when water is added to Calcium Oxide. A lot of heat is released, making the water boil as it touches the Calcium Oxide. Calcium Hydroxide, a crumbly white solid, forms in the reaction.
      • Calcium Hydroxide dissolves in water to create a solution known as limewater.
      • Calcium Oxide, Hydroxide and Carbonate can be used to neutralise soil acidity.
        • They are alkali's, meaning they neutralize acids. They are sprayed in a powder form over crops to do this.
      • Calcium Carbonate can be used to remove acidic gases from coal-fired power station chimneys.
        • Coal naturally contains sulfur and sulfur compounds. When the coal burns, sulfur dioxide is formed. This is an acidic gas. They produce acid rain if they escape into the atmosphere. Wet powdered calium carbonate is sprayed into the waste gases, reacting with and neutralizing them.
          • In this way, limestone reduces harmful emissions and helps to reduce acid rain.
    • 1.8: Chemical Reactions
      • The thermal decomposition of metal carbonates is simple.
        • Zinc Carbonate--> Zinc Oxide + CArbon Dioxide
      • Atoms are the smallest part of an element that can take part in chemical reactions. During reactions, atoms are neither created or destroyed.
        • During reactions, atoms are rearranged to make new products with different properties to the rectants.
      • The total mass before and after a reaction in a sealed container is unchanged.
        • AgNO3(aq) + KBr (aq) --> KNO3 (aq) + AgBr (s)
        • Silver Nitrate + Potassium Bromide --> Potassium Nitrate + Silver Bromide


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