Topic 2: Changing Methods Of Land Warfare. PART 2

  • Created by: Rita Ora
  • Created on: 14-11-16 06:25
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  • Topic 2: Changing Methods Of Land Warfare. PART 2
    • The Allied drive to victory 1944-45...
      • 1)The 'break-out' from Normandy took nearly 6 weeks of bitter fighting. The main success was the defeat of the German armed forces at Falaise in early August 1944. On the 25th Paris was liberated.
      • 2) Allied differences. The British commander, Montgomery, favoured a single Blitzkrieg. However, commander Eisenhower, preferred a slower advance.
      • 3) Arnhem Operation- Operation 'Market Garden'. The failure of Arnhem resulted in the revert to a slower advance on a broad front.
      • 4) The Battle of the Bulge-Hitler's last gamble to avoid defeat...
        • 5)...December 1944, German's almost broke through Americans but reinforcements were poured in and the German offensive failed-it further slowed the Allied advance though.
      • 6) Crossing the Rhine not until 22nd March 1945. Allies entered Germany but were unable to reach Berlin before the Soviet Forces.
    • Developments after 1945.
      • 1) The Arab-Israeli conflicts
        • 1) The setting up of Israel in 1948 led to a series of conflicts.
        • 2) Although greatly outnumbered, Israel was successful because...
          • 3) Arab neighbours not united.
          • 4) Israel created a western army.
          • 5) Effective use of armour and up to date technology with the support of the USA.
        • The 6 Day War 1967
          • 1) 5 June 1967, Israeli Air Force attacked and destroyed Egyptian air bases in 2 hrs.
          • 2) Israeli tanks crushed the Egyptian army in the Sinai Peninsula.
          • 3) Israeli Air Force turned its attention to Egypt's allies, Syria and Jordan and captured Golan Heights which were occupied by Syrian Armed Forces.
          • 4) Israeli blitzkrieg tactics, based on speed and surprised had been totally successful.
        • War of Yom Kippur 1973
          • 1) Israel, not totally successful.
          • 2) October 1973, Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur, Egypt and Syria attacked Israeli forces in Sinai and the Golan Heights.
          • 3) Egyptian forces inflicted heavy losses on Israel but Israel was able to recover and drove back the Syrians in Golan Heights.
          • 4) In the Sinai, the Israeli's counter attacked in an open tank battle. The Israeli's destroyed much Egyptian armour.
          • 5) Israeli tanks eliminated Egyptian anti-aircraft missile sites.
          • 6) At this point, the 2 superpowers, USA and Soviet intervened.
      • 2) The First Gulf War.
        • 1) Land forces still necessary to achieve victory.
        • 2) 2 August 1990, Saddam Hussain ordered invasion of Kuwait.
        • 3) In less than 24hrs, Kuwait was under Iraqi's control.
        • 4) American's determined to defend the oil resources.
        • 5) USA, Britain and other states sent forces to Saudi Arabia...
          • ...Operation named, 'Operation Desert Shied' designed to defend Saudi Arabia and its vast oil resources from possible Iraqi attack.
        • 6) Operation Desert Storm, air offence against Iraq- 16 January 1991.
        • 7) In the first 10 hrs, Iraq's military infrastructure an ground forces were wrecked/
        • 8) After more than a month of ' softening up' Operation Desert Saber, the ground offensive to liberate Kuwait was launched.
      • 3) Guerilla Warfare.
        • 1) Means 'little war'. A small group of combatants use mobile tactics to combat a larger and less mobile army.
        • 2) Sun Tzu- Chinese military strategist gave suggestions on how to defeat a enemy that is larger and better equipped than your own army
        • 3) Vietcong mainly used these tactics.
        • 4) Vietcong were no match for the USA in open warfare, but they had the knowledge and understanding of jungles in South Vietnam.
        • 5) Vietcong won support of local peasantry. They could be ruthless when necessary and were quite prepared to kill peasants who opposed them.
        • 6) Vietcong supplied from the North using the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
        • 7) US soldiers lived in constant fear of ambushes and booby traps.
        • 8) Vietcong almost impossible to identify, they did not wear uniforms and were hard to distinguish from the local peasants.
        • 9) Communist forces dug deep tunnels as air raid shelters, safe haven for guerilla fighters and refuge from bombing.
        • 10) Guerilla tactics important as: They forced USA to eventually leave Vietnam. They showed that a locally supported force could defeat and enemy with far greater resources and technology using guerilla tactics.
      • 4) Afghanistan-1980s
        • 1) Christmas Day 1979, Soviet forces invaded Afghanistan and within a wk had set up a new gov.
        • 2) Opposed by Afghan tribesmen known as the Mujaheddin.
        • 3) Soviet forces forced to retreat to mountains-Mujaheddin now using guerilla war against the Soviet invaders which was very effective.
        • 4) Mujaheddin-fighting for a cause and their hit and run tactics were very effective.
        • 5) By 1988, Mujaheddin controlled 75% of Afghanistan and the same yr, Soviet Union agreed to evacuate.

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