mental health

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  • Topic 1- historical context of mental health
    • historical views
      • animism
        • a supernatural explanation
        • evil spirits have taken possession of an individual
        • some skulls were found from Paleolithic Cave Dwellers which have holes in as threphining was performed to provide an exit for demons or evil spirits
        • can be possessed by spirits such as ancestors, animals, gods, heroes and of victims whose wrongs had not been resolved
      • humourism
        • a somatogenic explanation
        • metal health was dependant on the balance of four humours or fluids in the body (blood, black bile, yellow bile and phlem
        • if the person was sluggish and dull - the body has too much phlegm   too much black bile - melancholia      too much yellow bile - explained irritability and anxiousness     too much blood - changeable temperament
        • Used leeches and purgatives as treatments
      • animalism
        • patients were chained to the walls or kept on leashes. they were confined to the cellar and their scalps were shaved and blistered. they were bled to a point of syncope and purged until they could not yield anything but mucas
        • believed madness resulted from animalism. that the insane had lost the capacity to distinguish humans from beasts.
        • treatment was to restore reason by causing fear
    • defining abnormality
      • Rosenhan and Seligman
      • 1. statistical infrequency..     if behaviour is common then its normal, if behaviour is rare then its abnormal
      • 2. failure of function adequately..     classed as abnormal if they are unable to cope with the demands of every day life
      • 3. deviation from social norms..            those who break norms and values are classed as abnormal
      • 3. deviation from idea mental health.. this can include feeling positive, having self discipline and having positive social interacts
    • categorising mental disorders
      • DSM-5
      • the DSM is mainly used in America, it is a system which contains more than 300 disorders
      • it tries to place them in chronological lifespan order. (how early on you are likely to get them)
      • the dysfunctional behaviours are organised into 22 categories. examples are obsessive compulsive eating disorders, feeding and eating disorders and sleep wake disorders
      • for each disorder, DSM-5 includes details on ..
        • gender related diagnostic issues
        • diagnostic criterea
        • culture related diagnostic issues


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