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  • Tonality
    • Debussy Sarabande
      • Modal - principal mode = C# Aeolian mode(bar 1-8 and 15-22).
      • Tonal ambiguity e.g. melody in bar  could be in E major but the  harmony is closer to C# (mode)
        • bars 42-45 - D major chord may be Neapolitan 6th
      • Passes through E mixolydian mode, D# major (b54) and at the end passes through G# Aeolian minor and back to C# Aeolian.
    • Beethoven Septet
      • Functional Tonality - modulations to closely related keys.
      • Tonic is Eb major seen in introduction, exposition 1st subject and recap. 2nd subject
      • In the exposition 2nd subject, the dominant is seen - typical of classical sonata form.
      • Development = various keys - C minor - Ab major (b124) - F minor (b132).
        • All established by perfect cadenses
    • Schumann Kinderscenen
      • No. 1
        • G major
        • Briefly to E minor (b12) but avoids resolving to tonic
      • No. 3
        • B minor
        • modulates to G major ( b9)
      • No. 11
        • E minor initially
          • bar 4 = G major, bar 10 = E minor, bar 12 = C major (sequentially)
        • Briefly A minor (bar22) and B minor (bar24)
    • Sweenlick Pavana Lachrimae
      • Modal - Aeolian
        • G#'s occasionally added giving A minor feel explained as conventional chromatic alterations.
    • Bach concerto no. 4 in G major.
      • G major
      • Modulations to related keys
        • Tonic, Subdominant and Dominant with their relative minors.
      • Ritornello's appear in all 6 keys
        • G, C, D, e, a and b.


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